Department of Information Management, National Sun Yat-sen University; Department of Information Management, National Sun Yat-sen University; Department of Information Management, National Sun Yat-sen University; Department of Information Management, National Sun Yat-sen University; Department of Information Management, National Sun Yat-sen University
金融服務不再侷限於傳統金融機構才可提供，各行業皆可投入於金融市場，藉由資訊科技營造出應景的服務體驗，使純網銀(Internet-only bank)成為國際追求的金融服務趨勢之一。純網銀在無提供實體通路的情況下，雖能依靠生態系優勢帶來許多創新思維，卻也存在著某些隱憂與風險性。本研究基於推力-拉力-繫住力理論探討台灣消費者從現有銀行轉換至純網銀的因素。研究結果發現推力效果（即不便利性、低感知價值）與拉力效果（即替代品吸引力、信任轉移）會正向影響純網銀轉換意圖；銀行繫住力效果（即感知安全隱私、實體互動需求）則會負向影響純網銀轉換意圖，且個人繫住力能抑制與促進此銀行繫住力。最後，本研究也根據研究結果提出理論與實務建議。(154_M623d1d6f42490_Abs.pdf(File does not exist))
Financial business is no longer limited to traditional financial institutions, and companies from diverse domains (e.g., technology, retail, and telecom) have joined the financial service marketplace by employing advanced technologies. Internet-only bank provides new financial services to create a better experience for users. However, although it can rely on the advantages of the ecosystem, there are some concerns and risks. Through the lens of push-pull-mooring theory, we explore the factors which influence consumers to switch internet-only banks from existing banks. The results indicate that pull effects (i.e., inconvenience and low perceived value) and push effects (i.e., alternative attractiveness and trust transfer) positively impact switching intention. Moreover, banking mooring effects (i.e., perceived security and privacy and need for interaction) negatively impact switching intention. In addition, personal mooring effects can facilitate (i.e., inertia) and inhibit (i.e., personal innovativeness) banking mooring effects. Finally, the paper also provides some theoretical and practical implications on how our findings are helpful to financial practitioners and professionals.(154_M623d1d6f42490_Abs.pdf(File does not exist))
Internet-Only Bank, Push-Pull-Mooring Theory, Switching Intention, Banking Mooring Effects, Personal Mooring Effects
OpView社群口碑資料庫，2021，「小資理財術：數位帳戶市場網路聲量剖析」，https://www.opview.com.tw/wp-content/file/OpView-Social-Watch-Vol.124.pdf, accessed on September 2021。(OpView, 2021, “Petty Bourgeoisie Financial Management: An Analysis of Online Voice Volume in the Digital Account Market,” https://www.opview.com.tw/wp-content/file/OpView-Social-Watch-Vol.124.pdf, accessed on September 2021.)
林彥均，2020，以信任轉移及現狀偏誤探討純網銀使用意圖─以LINE Bank為例，中山大學資訊管理學系碩士論文。(Lin, Y. C., 2020, Exploring Trust Transfer and Status Quo Bias on the Usage Intention of Internet-Only Bank, Master Thesis, National Sun Yat-sen University.)
https://www.fsc.gov.tw/ch/home.jsp?id=96&parentpath=0,2&mcustomize=news_view.jsp&dataserno=201808160004&aplistdn=ou=news,ou=multisite,ou=chinese,ou=ap_root,o=fsc,c=tw&dtable=News, accessed on September 2021。(Financial Supervisory Commission R.O.C. (Taiwan), 2018, “In order to open up the establishment of pure online banking, the draft amendments to the "Standards for the Establishment of Commercial Banks" and the "Criteria for the Reinvestment of Commercial Banks" are announced,” https://www.fsc.gov.tw/ch/home.jsp?id=96&parentpath=0,2&mcustomize=news_view.jsp&dataserno=201808160004&aplistdn=ou=news,ou=multisite,ou=chinese,ou=ap_root,o=fsc,c=tw&dtable=News, accessed on September 2021.)
金融監督管理委員會，2021，「銀行業務資訊揭露-數位存款帳戶業務統計」，https://www.banking.gov.tw/ch/home.jsp?id=590&parentpath=0&mcustomize=multimessage_view.jsp&dataserno=201911270001&dtable=Disclosure, accessed on September 2021。(Financial Supervisory Commission R.O.C. (Taiwan), 2021, “Banking Information Disclosure-Digital Deposit Account Business Statistics,” https://www.banking.gov.tw/ch/home.jsp?id=590&parentpath=0&mcustomize=multimessage_view.jsp&dataserno=201911270001&dtable=Disclosure, accessed on September 2021.)
陳秋媚，2019，以推力-拉力-維繫力理論探討消費者對智慧商店之轉換意圖，中山大學資訊管理學系碩士論文。(Tan, C. M., 2019, Utilizing Push-Pull-Mooring Theory to Explore the Consumer Intention to Switch to Smart Store, Master Thesis, National Sun Yat-sen University.)
http://www.bestwise.com.tw/current/post.aspx?ipost=5297, accessed on September 2021。(Yang, C., 2021, “Internet-Only Bank vs. Traditional Banking, Each is Good at Winning,” http://www.bestwise.com.tw/current/post.aspx?ipost=5297, accessed on September 2021.)
劉曉薇，2019，「純網路銀行對銀行業的影響研析」，彰化銀行專題譯述，68卷6期：1~19。(Liu, H. W., 2019, “Research and Analysis on the Influence of Internet-Only Bank on Banking Industry,” Special Topic Translation of Changhua Bank, Vol. 68, No. 6, 1-19.)
Agarwal, R. and Prasad, J., 1998, “A Conceptual and Operational Definition of Personal Innovativeness in the Domain of Information Technology,” Information Systems Research, Vol. 9, No. 2, 204-215.
Ahn, S. J. and Lee, S. H., 2019, “The Effect of Consumers' Perceived Value on Acceptance of an Internet-Only Bank Service,” Sustainability, Vol. 11, No. 17, 1-9.
Bansal, H. S., Taylor, S. F., and St. James, Y., 2005, “’Migrating’ to New Service Providers: Toward a Unifying Framework of Consumers’ Switching Behaviors,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 33, No. 1, 96-115.
Baptista, G. and Oliveira, T., 2016, “A Weight and a Meta-Analysis on Mobile Banking Acceptance Research,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 63, 480-489.
Becker, J. M., Klein, K., and Wetzels, M., 2012, “Hierarchical Latent Variable Models in Pls-Sem: Guidelines for Using Reflective-Formative Type Models,” Long Range Planning, Vol. 45, No. 5-6, 359-394.
Berry, L. L., Seiders, K., and Grewal, D., 2002, “Understanding Service Convenience,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 66, No. 3, 1-17.
Bogue, D. J., 1969, Principles of Demography, 1st, New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Barquin, S., Vinayak, H. V., and Shrikhande, D., 2018, “Asia’s Digital Banking Race: Giving Customers What They Want,”
https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/mckinsey/industries/financial%20services/our%20insights/reaching%20asias%20digital%20banking%20customers/asias-digital-banking-race-web-final.pdf, accessed on September, 2019.
CACI, 2019, “The Growth of Digital Banking Report-the Continued Rise of Mobile Banking and the Changing Savings Market,” https://pages.caci.co.uk/rs/752-EBZ-498/images/caci-future-growth-digital-banking-report-2019.pdf, accessed on September, 2019.
Chang, H. H., Wong, K. H., and Li, S. Y., 2017, “Applying Push-Pull-Mooring to Investigate Channel Switching Behaviors: M-Shopping Self-Efficacy and Switching Costs as Moderators,” Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, Vol. 24, 50-67.
Chang, I. C., Liu, C. C., and Chen, K. C., 2014, “The Push, Pull and Mooring Effects in Virtual Migration for Social Networking Sites,” Information Systems Journal, Vol. 24, No. 4, 323-346.
Chen, K. C., 2020, “Implications of Fintech Developments for Traditional Banks,” International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Vol. 10, No. 5, 227-235.
Chen, Y. H. and Keng, C. J., 2019, “Utilizing the Push-Pull-Mooring-Habit Framework to Explore Users' Intention to Switch from Offline to Online Real-Person English Learning Platform,” Internet Research, Vol. 29, No. 1, 167-193.
Cheng, S., Lee, S. J., and Choi, B., 2019, “An Empirical Investigation of Users’ Voluntary Switching Intention for Mobile Personal Cloud Storage Services Based on the Push-Pull-Mooring Framework,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 92, 198-215.
Cocosila, M. and Trabelsi, H., 2016, “An Integrated Value-Risk Investigation of Contactless Mobile Payments Adoption,” Electronic Commerce Research Applications, Vol. 20, 159-170.
Cowles, D. and Crosby, L. A., 1990, “Consumer Acceptance of Interactive Media in Service Marketing Encounters,” Service Industries Journal, Vol. 10, No. 3, 521-540.
Dabholkar, P. A., 1996, “Consumer Evaluations of New Technology-Based Self-Service Options: An Investigation of Alternative Models of Service Quality,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 13, No. 1, 29-51.
DeYoung, R., 2001, “The Financial Performance of Pure Play Internet Banks,” Economic Perspectives-Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Vol. 25, No. 1, 60-75.
DeYoung, R., 2005, “The Performance of Internet-Based Business Models: Evidence from the Banking Industry,” Journal of Business, Vol. 78, No. 3, 893-947.
Diamantopoulos, A. and Siguaw, J., 2000, Introducing Lisrel: A Guide for Structural Equation Modeling, 1st, California: Sage Publications Inc.
Dixit, N., 2021, “Bank Customers Cementing New Relationship with Digital Channels,” https://cdn.roxhillmedia.com/production/email/attachment/870001_880000/73b1556e611ca8f0f3018dce5fe9e1157c8e6fcf.pdf, accessed on September, 2019.
Edwards, J. R., 2001, “Multidimensional Constructs in Organizational Behavior Research: An Integrative Analytical Framework,” Organizational Research Methods, Vol. 4, No. 2, 144-192.
Farhoomand, A. F. and Mak, V., 2002, “Japan Net Bank: Japan’s First Internet-Only Bank-a Teaching Case,” Proceeding-15th Bled Electronic Commerce Conference, Bled, Slovenia.
Fornell, C. and Larcker, D. F., 1981, “Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18, No. 1, 39-50.
Furst, K., Lang, W. W., and Nolle, D. E., 2002, “Internet Banking,” Journal of Financial Services Research, Vol. 22, No. 1, 95-117.
Gerrard, P. and Cunningham, J. B., 2004, “Consumer Switching Behavior in the Asian Banking Market,” Journal of Services Marketing, Vol. 18, No. 3, 215-223.
Green, R., 2020, “Uk Banking Channel Forecast-How Shifting Consumer Habits and the Coronavirus Pandemic Are Shaping Future Usage of and Informing Banks' Investments in Branches, Digital and Mobile Banking, Atms, and Call Centers,” https://www.emarketer.com/content/uk-banking-channel-forecast-how-shifting-consumer-habits-and-the-coronavirus-pandemic-are-shaping-future-usage-of-and-informing-banks-investments-in-branches-digital-and-mobile-banking-atms-and-call-centers-2020-7, accessed on September, 2019.
Gong, X., Zhang, K. Z., Chen, C., Cheung, C. M., and Lee, M. K., 2020, “Transition from Web to Mobile Payment Services: The Triple Effects of Status Quo Inertia,” International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 50, 310-324.
Hanafizadeh, P., Behboudi, M., Koshksaray, A. A., and Tabar, M. J. S., 2014, “Mobile- Banking Adoption by Iranian Bank Clients,” Telematics and Informatics, Vol. 31, No. 1, 62-78.
Handarkho, Y. D. and Harjoseputro, Y., 2019, “Intention to Adopt Mobile Payment in Physical Stores Individual Switching Behavior Perspective Based on Push-Pull- Mooring (PPM) Theory,” Journal of Enterprise Information Management, Vol. 33, No. 2, 285-308.
Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., and Sarstedt, M., 2015, “A New Criterion for Assessing Discriminant Validity in Variance-Based Structural Equation Modeling,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 43, No. 1, 115-135.
Hoehle, H., Scornavacca, E., and Huff, S., 2012, “Three Decades of Research on Consumer Adoption and Utilization of Electronic Banking Channels: A Literature Analysis,” Decision Support Systems, Vol. 54, No. 1, 122-132.
Hou, A. C., Chern, C. C., Chen, H. G., and Chen, Y. C., 2011, “‘Migrating to a New Virtual World’: Exploring Mmorpg Switching through Human Migration Theory,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 27, No. 5, 1892-1903.
Hsieh, J. K., Hsieh, Y. C., Chiu, H. C., and Feng, Y. C., 2012, “Post-Adoption Switching Behavior for Online Service Substitutes: A Perspective of the Push–Pull–Mooring Framework,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 28, No. 5, 1912-1920.
Jarvis, C. B., MacKenzie, S. B., and Podsakoff, P. M., 2003, “A Critical Review of Construct Indicators and Measurement Model Misspecification in Marketing and Consumer Research,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 30, No. 2, 199-218.
Jun, M. and Cai, S., 2001, “The Key Determinants of Internet Banking Service Quality: A Content Analysis,” International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 19, No. 7, 276-291.
Kaabachi, S., Mrad, S. B., and Petrescu, M., 2017, “Consumer Initial Trust toward Internet- Only Banks in France,” International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 35, No. 6, 903-924.
Keaveney, S. M., 1995, “Customer Switching Behavior in Service Industries: An Exploratory Study,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 59, No. 2, 71-82.
Kim, C., Mirusmonov, M., and Lee, I., 2010, “An Empirical Examination of Factors Influencing the Intention to Use Mobile Payment,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 26, No. 3, 310-322.
Kim, H. W., Chan, H. C., and Gupta, S., 2007, “Value-Based Adoption of Mobile Internet: An Empirical Investigation,” Decision Support Systems, Vol. 43, No. 1, 111-126.
Kim, H. W. and Kankanhalli, A., 2009, “Investigating User Resistance to Information Systems Implementation: A Status Quo Bias Perspective,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 33, No. 3, 567-582.
King, B., 2018, Bank 4.0: Banking Everywhere, Never at a Bank, 1st, Singapore: John Wiley & Sons.
Koskosas, I., 2011, “The Pros and Cons of Internet Banking: A Short Review,” Business Excellence and Management, Vol. 1, No. 1, 49-58.
Lai, J. Y. and Wang, J., 2015, “Switching Attitudes of Taiwanese Middle-Aged and Elderly Patients toward Cloud Healthcare Services: An Exploratory Study,” Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 92, 155-167.
Lai, J. Y., Debbarma, S., and Ulhas, K. R., 2012, “An Empirical Study of Consumer Switching Behaviour Towards Mobile Shopping: A Push–Pull–Mooring Model,” International Journal of Mobile Communications, Vol. 10, No. 4, 386-404.
Leclerc, F., Schmitt, B. H., and Dube, L., 1995, “Waiting Time and Decision-Making-Is Time-Like Money,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 22, No. 1, 110-119.
Lee, J. M. and Kim, H. J., 2020, “Determinants of Adoption and Continuance Intentions toward Internet-Only Banks,” International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 38, No. 4, 843-865.
Lewis, G. J., 1982, Human Migration: A Geographical Perspective, 1st, London: Routledge.
Li, C. Y., 2018, “Consumer Behavior in Switching between Membership Cards and Mobile Applications: The Case of Starbucks,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 84, 171-184.
Li, C. Y. and Ku, Y. C., 2018, “The Power of a Thumbs-Up: Will E-Commerce Switch to Social Commerce?,” Information & Management, Vol. 55, No. 3, 340-357.
Li, M. L., Lin, S. P., Chan, Y. H., and Wu, C. H., 2021, “Customer Involvement Facets Stimulating Customers' Intention to Use Internet-Only Bank Services in China: The Extension of Perceived Risk-Value Model,” Journal of Organizational and End User Computing, Vol. 33, No. 5, 74-97.
Liang, T. P. and Huang, J. S., 1998, “An Empirical Study on Consumer Acceptance of Products in Electronic Markets: A Transaction Cost Model,” Decision Support Systems, Vol. 24, No. 1, 29-43.
Lin, T. C. and Huang, S. L., 2014, “Understanding the Determinants of Consumers' Switching Intentions in a Standards War,” International Journal of Electronic Commerce, Vol. 19, No. 1, 163-189.
Loh, X. M., Lee, V. H., Tan, G. W. H., Ooi, K. B., and Dwivedi, Y. K., 2020, “Switching from Cash to Mobile Payment: What's the Hold-Up?,” Internet Research, Vol. 31, No. 1, 376-399.
Longino, C. F. Jr., 1992, “The Forest and the Trees: Micro-Level Considerations in the Study of Geographic Mobility in Old Age,” Elderly Migration Population Redistribution, 23-34.
Lu, J., Yao, J. E., and Yu, C. S., 2005, “Personal Innovativeness, Social Influences and Adoption of Wireless Internet Services Via Mobile Technology,” The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol. 14, No. 3, 245-268.
Lu, Y., Yang, S., Chau, P. Y., and Cao, Y., 2011, “Dynamics between the Trust Transfer Process and Intention to Use Mobile Payment Services: A Cross-Environment Perspective,” Information & Management, Vol. 48, No. 8, 393-403.
Montazemi, A. R. and Qahri-Saremi, H., 2015, “Factors Affecting Adoption of Online Banking: A Meta-Analytic Structural Equation Modeling Study,” Information & Management, Vol. 52, No. 2, 210-226.
Moon, B., 1995, “Paradigms in Migration Research: Exploring'moorings' as a Schema,” Progress in Human Geography, Vol. 19, No. 4, 504-524.
Nunnally, J. C., 1978, “An Overview of Psychological Measurement,” in Wolman, B. B. (EDs), Clinical Diagnosis of Mental Disorders, First Edition, Springer, Boston, MA, 97-146.
Peng, X., Zhao, Y. C., and Zhu, Q., 2016, “Investigating User Switching Intention for Mobile Instant Messaging Application: Taking Wechat as an Example,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 64, 206-216.
Podsakoff, P. M. and Organ, D. W., 1986, “Self-Reports in Organizational Research: Problems and Prospects,” Journal of Management, Vol. 12, No. 4, 531-544.
Polites, G. L. and Karahanna, E., 2012, “Shackled to the Status Quo: The Inhibiting Effects of Incumbent System Habit, Switching Costs, and Inertia on New System Acceptance,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 1, 21-42.
Pwc, 2017, “(Don’t) Take It to the Bank: What Customers Want in the Digital Age,” https://docplayer.net/54566865-Don-t-take-it-to-the-bank-what-customers-want-in-the-digital-age.html, accessed on September, 2019.
Rahi, S., Mansour, M. M. O., Alharafsheh, M., and Alghizzawi, M., 2021, “The Post- Adoption Behavior of Internet Banking Users through the Eyes of Self-Determination Theory and Expectation Confirmation Model,” Journal of Enterprise Information Management, Vol. 34, No. 6, 1874-1892.
Reinders, M. J., Dabholkar, P. A., and Frambach, R. T., 2008, “Consequences of Forcing Consumers to Use Technology-Based Self-Service,” Journal of Service Research, Vol. 11, No. 2, 107-123.
Rogers, F., 1983, Diffusion of Innovations, 3th, New York: Free Press.
Samuelson, W. and Zeckhauser, R., 1988, “Status Quo Bias in Decision Making,” Journal of Risk and Uncertainty, Vol. 1, No. 1, 7-59.
Sayar, C. and Wolfe, S., 2007, “Internet Banking Market Performance: Turkey Versus the Uk,” International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 25, No. 3, 122-141.
Stewart, K. J., 2003, “Trust Transfer on the World Wide Web,” Organization science, Vol. 14, No. 1, 5-17.
Sun, Y., Liu, D., Chen, S., Wu, X., Shen, X. L., and Zhang, X., 2017, “Understanding Users' Switching Behavior of Mobile Instant Messaging Applications: An Empirical Study from the Perspective of Push-Pull-Mooring Framework,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 75, 727-738.
Susanty, A., Handoko, A., and Puspitasari, N. B., 2020, “Push-Pull-Mooring Framework for E-Commerce Adoption in Small and Medium Enterprises,” Journal of Enterprise Information Management, Vol. 33, No. 2, 381-406.
Wang, L., Luo, X. R., Yang, X., and Qiao, Z., 2019, “Easy Come or Easy Go? Empirical Evidence on Switching Behaviors in Mobile Payment Applications,” Information & Management, Vol. 56, No. 7, 103150.
Wu, K. W., Vassileva, J., and Zhao, Y. X., 2017, “Understanding Users' Intention to Switch Personal Cloud Storage Services: Evidence from the Chinese Market,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 68, 300-314.
Xu, Y. J., Yang, Y. P., Cheng, Z. Y., and Lim, J., 2014, “Retaining and Attracting Users in Social Networking Services: An Empirical Investigation of Cyber Migration,” Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol. 23, No. 3, 239-253.
Ye, C. and Potter, R., 2011, “The Role of Habit in Post-Adoption Switching of Personal Information Technologies: An Empirical Investigation,” Communications of the Association for Information Systems, Vol. 28, No. 1, 585-610.
Zeithaml, V. A., 1988, “Consumer Perceptions of Price, Quality, and Value: A Means-End Model and Synthesis of Evidence,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 52, No. 3, 2-22.
Zhang, Y., Chen, X. G., Liu, X. H., and Zhu, N., 2018, “Exploring Trust Transfer between Internet Enterprises and Their Affiliated Internet-Only Banks: An Adoption Study of Internet-Only Banks in China,” Chinese Management Studies, Vol. 12, No. 1, 56-78.