Sun Yat-Sen Management Review

  Journal Fullview

Sun Yat-Sen Management Review  2010/6

Vol. 18, No.2  p.483-526


Title
知識複製與模仿之不對等障礙對持久性競爭優勢影響之研究:以連鎖體系之便利商店及連鎖咖啡為例
Exploring the Impacts of Asymmetrical Barriers between Knowledge Replication and Knowledge Imitation on Sustainable Competitive
(634305307105937500.pdf 935KB)

Author
沈慶龍、劉淑芬/國立屏東科技大學企業管理系、台北縣政府農業局
Ching-Lung Shen、Shu-Fen Liu/

Department of Business Administration, National Pingtung University of Science & Technology , Agriculture Bureau, Taipei County Government


Abstract(Chinese)

知識經濟時㈹,知識為組織的核心㈾源,透過組織內部複製的過程,使之 應用於㆒更廣泛的市場範圍,以最大化該知識所能實現的租,並創造競爭㊝勢 的議題,成為業界及㈻術界關㊟的焦點。但競爭㊝勢的持久性,則源㉂於該㈾ 源被競爭者模仿障礙之高低。不幸的是,複製與模仿是併道而行的,當組織意 圖建構競爭者模仿障礙的同時,可能也築高了其內部對知識複製的困難度。我 們關㊟的焦點在於:在那些情況㆘,組織較其他競爭者,擁㈲不對等的移轉障 礙㊝勢,使其在進行內部的複製過程,可以獲致競爭㊝勢,另㆒方面,又能延 緩競爭者的模仿威脅。 本研究從知識的㈵質模糊性、因果連結模糊性及知識系絡模糊性,來探討 對知識複製與模仿所產生的不對等障礙,進而對持久性競爭㊝勢之影響,並以 連鎖體系㆗的便利超商及連鎖咖啡為研究對象。㈲效問卷共295份,經過 LISREL分析後,研究結果顯示,當模糊度分為高、㆗及低時,在㆗模糊度㆘, 知識㈵質模糊性、因果連結模糊性及知識系絡模糊性,均形成複製與模仿的不 對等障礙;而在高及低模糊度㆘,因果連結模糊性及知識系絡模糊性,形成複 製與模仿的不對等障礙。㈾料亦顯示在㆗模糊度㆘,對複製與模仿之不對等障 礙影響最為顯著。最後,當不對等障礙愈高,對持久性競爭㊝勢的影響也愈明 顯,同時,因果連結模糊性對持久性競爭㊝勢也產生直接的影響。 本研究認為組織管理者對於核心知識的㈾源配置,及對未來能力發展的願 景㆖,承擔重要的責任。因此,辨識複製與模仿不對等障礙的驅動因子,及如 何透過再投㈾計畫以維持、補強或重建構此㆒㊝勢基礎,成為重要的策略性議 題。

(634305346142500000.pdf 64KB)

KeyWord(Chinese)

複製與模仿、不對等障礙、持久性競爭優勢


Abstract(English)

Knowledge has emerged as the most strategically significant resource and the source of competitive advantage of the firm. The replication of productive knowledge within the organizational boundary can leverage and exploit the rents it can earn. However, in order to speed up the effective replication, the knowledge may have to be transformed from a tacit into a more explicit form. By doing this, the knowledge will increase it’s transparency and lower down the imitation barrier which will erode the sustainability of it’s advantage. The high linkage relationship between replication and imitation has evoked a lot of research interest. However, what firms concern is under what situation in which the asymmetric transfer barriers exist. Based on the viewpoint of knowledge causal ambiguity, this study examined the source of asymmetric barriers between replication and imitation, and their effects on the sustainability of organizational competitive advantage. Compared with prior studies, this study incorporated three antecedents : Knowledge characteristics ambiguity 、 causal linkage ambiguity and knowledge context ambiguity as the major sources of ambiguity. To explore the critical relationships among ambiguities、asymmetric barriers and competitive advantage sustainability, this study executed two research designs: 1. deep interviews with top managers to generate the industry core knowledge list. 2. an empirical test with the retailing industry as the subjects and 295 respondent data were analyzed using LISREL. This study concluded that the paradox of replication and imitation mainly derived from knowledge characteristics ambiguity, particularly at the high and low level of ambiguity. This means that organization will gain the most advantage at the moderate level of ambiguity. However, the causal linkage and knowledge context ambiguity will positively influence the asymmetric barriers at all the situations of high、moderate and low level of ambiguity. Also, the asymmetric barriers will positively associate with the competitive advantage. This study argues that managers should take the major responsibilities to dispose their core knowledge and the future development of their vision. Therefore how to identify the drivers of asymmetric barrier between replication and imitation, and how to retain、enhance or rebuild these advantages become the most important strategic management issue.

(634305346142500000.pdf 64KB)

KeyWord(English)

Replication & Imitation, Asymmetrical Barriers, Sustainable Competitive Advantage


Policy and management implications
(Available only in Chinese)

資源基礎觀點強調資源與能力的不可模仿性,為組織競爭優勢持久性的重要來源。而此一不可模仿性,最主要則來自於核心能力的因果模糊性。從組織內部複製的觀點,此一因果模糊性,卻同時因不利於組織內的學習、移轉與重新結合,導致在複製上,也面臨同等的障礙,而減損了核心能力的槓桿效果。另一方面,在試圖降低組織內複製障礙的同時,卻也降低了競爭者對其模仿之障礙。因果模糊性所導致之此種複製與模仿障礙的兩難困境,在知識經濟時代下,已漸受學術界與實務界的關注。然而,有關因果模糊性的本質,及其對組織競爭優勢的淨影響效果,卻仍有許多尚待釐清與驗證的空間。 本研究建基於知識移轉障礙概念的理論發展,並透過相關文獻的回顧,在因果模糊性之本質與來源上,萃取出「知識特質模糊性」、「因果連結模糊性」與「知識系絡模糊性」。同時也彙整相關理論之論點,來推導複製與模仿間的不對等障礙。其中包括,從組織學習認知理論的觀點,組織較之於市場,提供一更佳的學習進階發展區;從組織設計的觀點,組織透過寬鬆連結的有機式結構設計,得以平衡中央集權與地方分權的利益,能對地方性情勢的變動作出快速調適,並在知識擴散前,加以深植於更高階的知識層級;另從進化經濟的觀點,由於資訊搜尋及成功典範模板的優勢,讓複製者能處於一較佳的起始點,並在執行上遭遇困難時,亦能獲致一組有經驗之團隊的協助;最後,也因為組織發展的路徑相依性、市場的先佔優勢及競爭者的先前策略性承諾因素,導致有價值知識在組織內部疆界的複製,相較於競爭者對其之模仿,要來得容易。本研究續透過實證性的研究設計,以便利商店及咖啡連鎖體系為研究對象,並利用LISREL之統計分析方法,進行在不同層級模糊性下,研究假設之驗證,並對此一策略性議題,獲致一更深入的結論與洞察。 儘管研究結論顯示,因果模糊性的三個主要來源,對複製與模仿之不對等障礙,並進而對持久性競爭優勢,產生顯著的影響關係。然而,組織必須體認到競爭者的模仿,終究只是時間長短上的問題而已。組織如欲持續維持此一不對等的優勢,須在補強與重新創造模糊性來源上,不斷地予以再投資。而組織管理者對於核心知識的資源配置,及對未來能力發展的願景上,也須承擔重要的責任。因此,組織管理者應確認四個重要的問題:a.什麼是組織獲致持久性競爭優勢的核心知識?b.每一核心知識在創造複製與模仿不對等障礙的驅動因子為何?c.管理者應思索如何透過組織核心知識之先天與人為的策略性作為,以創造這些不對等障礙驅動因子的模糊性優勢?d.組織對這些核心知識的資源佈署及再投資計劃為何?以便維持、補強或重建構此一不對等障礙的高度。


References