Sun Yat-Sen Management Review

  Journal Fullview

Sun Yat-Sen Management Review  2010/6

Vol. 18, No.2  p.527-562

Exploring the Phenomenon of Learning Organization Intervention on the Dynamics of Organizational Learning from the Cross-level Perspective
(634305310505781250.pdf 454KB)

Chao-Hua Li、Jen-Shou Yang、Cheng-Chen (Timothy) Lin/

Department of Business Administration, Transworld Institute of Technology , Department of Business Administration, National Yunlin University of Science and Technology , Department of Business Administration, National Pingtung University of Science and Te


傳統㆖,㈻者咸認組織㈻習是㆒種涵蓋個㆟、團隊和組織層次的㈻習現 象,而㈻習性組織亦為組織㈻習的重要介入的機制之㆒,但殊為可惜,在回顧 相關組織㈻習的文獻後,我們發現既㈲的研究成果㆗,此議題似乎沒㈲受到應 ㈲的實徵關㊟。職是之故,為瞭解此㆒介入手段與現象之間的連結,本研究藉 由㈻習型組織的介入來探討個㆟、團隊、和組織㈻習不同層次間的㈻習連結和 ㈻習轉換機制,以探索跨層次間的㈻習動態現象及其驅動因素。實證㆖,我們 針對㆒家㆞區性㊩院為個案研究對象,透過為期兩年的田野研究,我們針對所 收集的訪談稿、觀察記錄、會議記錄及其他相關㈾料進行多面向㈾料的質性分 析,據此,本研究發現以㆘的結論:(1)團隊㈻習構成關鍵性的連結脈絡,以 ㈳會認知為基礎的㈻習型態,做為個體、團隊和組織㈻習效能的移轉機制(2) 其㆗又以團隊㈻習技巧和㈻習規範為促進㈻習移轉的因素,強化個㆟和團隊㈻ 習之間的連結。(3)團隊透過專案,將㈻習成效呈現在標準作業流程的改善, 並將㈻習成效體制化,構成團隊和組織㈻習的連結。(4)而部門主管推動專案 的內容㈹表體制力量回饋到個體、團隊和組織的㈻習,並影響其未來的㈻習內 涵。最後,依據本研究所發現的結果,我們分就組織㈻習㆖理論和實務㆓方面 的意涵提出相關建議與看法。

(634305346256875000.pdf 64KB)




Organizational learning is the process of how learning occurs in organizations; it involves individual, group and organizational learning. This study seeks to illuminate dynamics of cross-level learning by focusing on facilitators and impediments to the learning transfer from individuals to the organization, and vice versa. A qualitative case study of a local community hospital with a two-year learning organization (LO) intervention sheds light on team-learning contexts as the key to moving forward learning effects between the various levels. A socio-cognitive process of team learning accounts for an explicit transfer process. Within the process, team-learning skills, characterized by inquiry and reflection, broaden individual intuiting, and interpreting, comprising the transfer mechanism between individual learning and team learning. Team-learning norms give rise to the informal coordination mechanisms, and integrate interdepartmental learning effects. Team-learning projects institutionalize learning outcomes through improvement of standard operational process (SOP), which further reinforce the linkage between team learning and organizational learning. Endorsement by a subunit supervisor is the institution force for feedback flows, thus completing an iterative cycle of individual, team and organizational learning. This research concludes that under the support of LO, the idea of organizational learning and its learning activities can be practically carried out. LO practices integrate cross-level dynamics and elucidate learning factors that make transfer of learning across multiple levels.

(634305346256875000.pdf 64KB)


organizational learning, learning organization, cross-level dynamics, team learning, transfer mechanisms

Policy and management implications
(Available only in Chinese)

Learning can occur at any level in an organization (from the individual to organizational). However individual learning does not always result in organizational performance, nor do individuals have the motivation, understanding, capacity, and opportunity to join teams for collective learning. The question is how to create this cross-level learning. The researchers have the following suggestions: 1. Traditionally, a top-down enactment of learning has disadvantages, as was seen in LO1, which was imposed coercively by the chairman. Though this chairman enthusiastically arranged an organizational-wide project, the learners said the enforced participation caused them to have less spontaneous involvements. Two reasons explain this opinion. First, learning issues identified by powerful representatives are not always the ones that employees at the lower levels would like to pursue. Second, the targets set by the powerful representatives can increases homogeneity within the organization, creating a loss of adaptation to environmental changes in the organization. The researchers recommend that participants for the learning activities should be brought on board to help the development of objectives in order to increase motivation and change. The selection of learning targets should also be left open and involvement should be voluntary in order to aid in the enhancement and creation of diverse perspectives. 2. There are four transfer mechanisms for cross-level learning that integrate the learning effects. First, forming of self-managed team to play a role of facilitating agent. In our research, the Internal Consultant Team functioned as change agents that translated organizational goals into guidance for group and individual learning. Also, the team managed the new learning climate to be less affected by previously institutionalized learning. Second, having project learning teams to induce effective organizational learning. Team as a learning unit interconnects individual and organizational learning. The team-learning project in this research was used as a tool to integrate diverse learning effects into organizational practices. Project-based learning is a feasible way to learn and to act. Third, having autonomy of action, learners were more likely to learn in jointly sense-making process. Autonomy allowed individuals to explore new solutions and to approach new possibilities. In the learning process, team-learning skills and norms are key factors to the successful collective learning experiences. Team-learning skills that help subordinates to make transition from Model I to Model II learning systems (Argyris & Schon, 1996) can be targeted as formal training for unit supervisors. And last, endorsement of the top management is significant to the institutionalizing process in the hospital. The top management has the power to ensure that new learning can be encoded into hospital routines. Therefore in deciding if new learning is more than a fad, the top management plays a critical role in the reinforcing the successful learning effects.