Department of Information Management, National University of Kaohsiung; Department of Information Management, National University of Kaohsiung
線上社交平台是敏感性社會議題常見的討論場域，如何提升個人意見表達或參與社會議題的意願，將是促進公民參與及國家發展的重要因素。本研究結合沉默螺旋理論與社會資本理論，探討個人在線上社交圈中面對敏感性社會議題時的意見表達意願，並以探索性研究角度，探討社會資本理論在其中的調節影響。研究結果發現：(1)個人感知的意見氣候一致性會正向影響個人的意見表達意願；(2)個人的害怕孤立感與自我呈現疑慮皆會負向影響個人的意見表達意願（然後者的影響在同婚議題中並不顯著）；(3)對新興與過渡型議題而言，社會資本負向調節自我呈現疑慮對意見表達意願的負向影響；(4)社會資本在感知意見氣候一致性及害怕孤立感對意見表達意願之影響的調節效果未獲支持。(156_M625792fd21379_Abs.pdf(File does not exist))
Online social platforms are common field for discussing sensitive social issues. How to strengthen personal intentions for opinion expression or participation in discussions is key to civic engagement and nation development. This research integrates the spiral of silence and social capital theories to investigate the issue of opinion expression for sensitive social issues. Also, this research also explores the moderating effects of social capital on the main effects. Results show that (1) consistency of perceived climate of opinion positively affects intention for opinion expression, (2) fear of isolation and self-presentational concern negatively affects intention for opinion expression (the influence of the latter, however, was insignificant for same-sex marriage issues), (3) for emerging and transitory opinion types, social capital negatively moderates the negative relationship between self-presentational concern and intention for opinion expression, and (4) the moderating effect of social capital on the influences of either consistency of perceived climate of opinion or fear of isolation on intention for opinion expression failed to be supported.(156_M625792fd21379_Abs.pdf(File does not exist))
Spiral of Silence, Social Capital, Sensitive Social Issues, Intention for Opinion Expression
本研究主要發現可以提供實務意涵上的討論。首先，不論議題類型，「感知意見氣候一致性」與「害怕孤立感」兩項因素對於意見表達意願而言均有重要影響。透過Hashtag、關鍵字、以及贊助曝光等方式有助於塑造「同溫層」現象或感知氣候一致性的操作。此外，針對個人可能因個性上擔心被社交圈孤立，因此避免參與敏感性社會議題的討論，因此有效地掌握人格特質，有助於敏感性社會議題在線上社交圈中的發酵。匿名機制、標記 (tag)、或是娛樂心理測驗等方式，皆有助掌握或發掘具特定人格特質的社交圈成員，對症下藥達到吸引參與議題討論的目的。另外，許多社團或贊助貼文中常見邀請標示朋友，亦是降低害怕孤立感對於意見表達或活動參與負向影響，同時也有助於拉出同溫層的雙重效益操作。 新興型與過渡型敏感性社會議題的意見表達意願，還會受到「自我呈現疑慮」以及「社會資本」的影響。從這個研究結果顯示，實務上開放、理性討論的議題氣氛反較單一、極端式的議題氛圍有助於網路社交圈中對於敏感性社會議題的討論熱度。這個現象對於新興型與過渡型敏感性社會議題特別突顯，應是由於這類議題並未如同持續型議題般，經過時間的沈澱，衝擊或新奇度較低，社交圈中通常也已發展出一套平衡的應對模式。新興型與過渡型敏感性社會議題由於出現時間相對較短，因此如何避免網友間因擔心個人印象或形象而傾向沉默，值得議題推動者進一步思考。 在一個具有良好關係的社交圈中，成員間具有緊密的連結，同時彼此之間的信任程度高，更具有彼此理解的共同語言，有助於減輕個人因為對於自我形象的憂慮，以致於迴避參與敏感性社會議題的討論。實務操作上，不同屬性的社團（例如興趣為主或社交關係為主）所呈現出的社會資本屬性不同，對意見領導者或社會運動發起人而言，社交圈屬性是在推動議題討論時必須考量的因素，社會資本高的社交圈中，個人對呈現形象的疑慮對其參與討論意願的影響力相較較弱，因此更容易提升議題於社交圈中的討論，以及公民參與程度。
Bargh, J. A., McKenna, K. Y., and Fitzsimons, G. M., 2002, “Can You See the Real Me? Activation and Expression of the ‘True Self’ on the Internet,” Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 58, No. 1, 33-48.
Bhattacherjee, A., 2001, “Understanding Information Systems Continuance: An Expectation- Confirmation Model,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 25, No. 3, 351-370.
Bilgihan, A., Barreda, A., Okumus, F., and Nusair, K., 2016, “Consumer Perception of Knowledge-Sharing in Travel-Related Online Social Networks,” Tourism Management, Vol. 52, 287-296.
Bode, L., 2012, “Facebooking it to the Polls: A Study in Online Social Networking and Political Behavior,” Journal of Information Technology & Politics, Vol. 9, No. 4, 352-369.
Brown, J. J. and Reingen, P. H., 1987, “Social Ties and Word-of-Mouth Referral Behavior,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 14, No. 3, 350-362.
Chaffee, S. F. and Berger, C. R., 1987, “What Communication Scientists Do” in Berger, C. R. and Chaffee, S. H. (eds.), Handbook of Communication Science, Newbury Park, CA: Sage, 99-122.
Chai, S. and Kim, M., 2012, “A Socio-Technical Approach to Knowledge Contribution Behavior: An Empirical Investigation of Social Networking Sites Users,” International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 32, No. 2, 118-126.
Chang, H. H. and Chuang, S. S., 2011, “Social Capital and Individual Motivations on Knowledge Sharing: Participant Involvement as a Moderator,” Information & Management, Vol. 48, No. 1, 9-18.
Chiu, C. M., Hsu, M. H., and Wang, E. T., 2006, “Understanding Knowledge Sharing in Virtual Communities: An Integration of Social Capital and Social Cognitive Theories,” Decision Support Systems, Vol. 42, No. 3, 1872-1888.
Chow, W. S. and Chan, L. S., 2008, “Social Network, Social Trust and Shared Goals in Organizational Knowledge Sharing,” Information & management, Vol. 45, No. 7, 458-465.
Cohen, J., 1988, Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Coleman, J. S., 1988, “Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital,” American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 94, S95-S120.
Dalisay, F., Hmielowski, J. D., Kushin, M. J., and Yamamoto, M., 2012, “Social Capital and the Spiral of Silence,” International Journal of Public Opinion Research, Vol. 24, No. 3, 325-345.
Evans, S. K., Pearce, K. E., Vitak, J., and Treem, J. W., 2017, “Explicating Affordances: A Conceptual Framework for Understanding Affordances in Communication Research,” Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, Vol. 22, No. 1, 35-52.
Fornell, C. and Larcker, D. F., 1981, “Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18, No. 1, 39-50.
Fox, J. and Warber, K. M., 2015, “Queer Identity Management and Political Self-Expression on Social Networking Sites: A Co-Cultural Approach to the Spiral of Silence,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 65, No. 1, 79-100.
Fu, P. W., Wu, C. C., and Cho, Y. J., 2017, “What Makes Users Share Content on Facebook? Compatibility Among Psychological Incentive, Social Capital Focus, and Content Type,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 67, 23-32.
Gearhart, S. and Zhang, W., 2014, “Gay Bullying and Online Opinion Expression: Testing Spiral of Silence in the Social Media Environment,” Social Science Computer Review, Vol. 32, No. 1, 18-36.
Gearhart, S. and Zhang, W., 2015, “Same Spiral, Different Day? Testing the Spiral of Silence Across Issue Types,” Communication Research, Vol. 45, No. 1, 34-54.
Gil de Zúñiga, H., Jung, N., and Valenzuela, S., 2012, “Social Media Use for News and Individuals' Social Capital, Civic Engagement and Political Participation,” Journal of Computer‐Mediated Communication, Vol. 17, No. 3, 319-336.
Glynn, C. J., Hayes, A. F., and Shanahan, J., 1997, “Perceived Support for One’s Opinions and Willingness to Speak Out: A Meta-Analysis of Survey Studies on the ‘Spiral of Silence’,” Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 61, No. 3, 452-463.
Glynn, C. J. and McLeod, J. M., 1984, “Public Opinion du Jour: An Examination of the Spiral of Silence,” Public Opinion Quarterly, Vol. 48, No. 4, 731-740.
Glynn, C. J. and Park, E., 1997, “Reference Groups, Opinion intensity, and Public Opinion Expression,” International Journal of Public Opinion Research, Vol. 9, No. 3, 213-232.
Goffman, E., 1959, The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, 1st, New York, NY: Anchor.
Guieford, J. P., 1965, Fundamental Statistics in Psychology and Education, 4th, New York: McGraw-Hill.
Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., and Black, W. C., 1998, Multivariate Data Analysis, 5th, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Hampton, K. N., Rainie, L., Lu, W., Dwyer, M., Shin, I., and Purcell, K., 2014, “Social Media and the Spiral of Silence,” http://www.pewinternet.org/2014/08/26/social-media-and-the-spiral-of-silence/, accessed on January 2, 2019.
Hampton, K. N., Shin, I., and Lu, W., 2017, “Social Media and Political Discussion: When Online Presence Silences Offline Conversation,” Information, Communication & Society, Vol. 20, No. 7, 1090-1107.
Hau, Y. S. and Kang, M., 2016, “Extending Lead User Theory to Users’ Innovation-Related Knowledge Sharing in the Online User Vommunity: The Mediating Roles of Social Capital and Perceived Behavioral Control,” International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 36, No. 4, 520-530.
Hau, Y. S., Kim, B., Lee, H., and Kim, Y. G., 2013, “The Effects of Individual Motivations and Social Capital on Employees’ Tacit and Explicit Knowledge Sharing Intentions,” International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 33, No. 2, 356-366.
Hayes, A., 2007, “Exploring the Forms of Self-Censorship: On the Spiral of Silence and the Use of Opinion Expression Avoidance Strategies,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 57, 785-802.
Hayes, A. F., Matthes, J., and Eveland Jr, W. P., 2013, “Stimulating the Quasi-Statistical Organ: Fear of Social Isolation Motivates the Quest for Knowledge of the Opinion Climate,” Communication Research, Vol. 40, No. 4, 439-462.
Henseler, J. and Chin, W. W., 2010, “A Comparison of Approaches for the Analysis of Interaction Effects between Latent Variables Using Partial Least Squares Path Modeling,” Structural Equation Modeling, Vol. 17, No. 1, 82-109.
Ho, S. S. and McLeod, D. M., 2008, “Social-Psychological Influences on Opinion Expression in Face-to-Face and Computer-Mediated Communication,” Communication Research, Vol. 35, No. 2, 190-207.
Hollenbaugh, E. E. and Ferris, A. L., 2014, “Facebook Self-Disclosure: Examining the Role of Traits, Social Cohesion, and Motives,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 30, 50-58.
Jiacheng, W., Lu, L., and Francesco, C. A., 2010, “A Cognitive Model of Intra- Organizational Knowledge-Sharing Motivations in the View of Cross-Culture,” International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 30, No. 3, 220-230.
Kim, B., 2011, “Understanding Antecedents of Continuance Intention in Social-Networking Services,” Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, Vol. 14, No. 4, 199-205.
Kim, S. H., 2012, “Testing Fear of Isolation as a Causal Mechanism: Spiral of Silence and Genetically Modified (GM) Foods in South Korea,” International Journal of Public Opinion Research, Vol. 24, No. 3, 306-324.
Kwon, K. H., Moon, S. I., and Stefanone, M. A., 2015, “Unspeaking on Facebook? Testing Network Effects on Self-Censorship of Political Expressions in Social Network Sites,” Quality & Quantity, Vol. 49, No. 4, 1417-1435.
Leary, M. R. and Kowalski, R. M., 1990, “Impression Management: A Literature Review and Two-Component Model,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 107, No. 1, 34.
Leary, M. R., 1995, Self-presentation: Impression Management and Interpersonal Behavior , 1st, Madison, WI: Brown & Benchmark Publishers.
Lee, W., Detenber, B. H., Willnat, L., Aday, S., and Graf, J., 2004, “A Cross-Cultural Test of the Spiral of Silence Theory in Singapore and the United States,” Asian Journal of Communication, Vol. 14, 205-226.
Lefebvre, V. M., Sorenson, D., Henchion, M., and Gellynck, X., 2016, “Social Capital and Knowledge Sharing Performance of Learning Networks,” International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 36, No. 4, 570-579.
Lin, C. S. and Chen, Y. F., 2011, “How does the Online Community Sharing Research Conceptualize Social Capital? A Literature Review,” Journal of Library and Information Studies, Vol. 9, No. 2, 55-89.
Liu, X. and Fahmy, S., 2011, “Exploring the Spiral of Silence in the Virtual World: Individuals' Willingness to Express Personal Opinions in Online Versus Offline Settings,” Journal of Media and Communication Studies, Vol. 3, No. 2, 45-57.
Liu, Y., Rui, J. R., and Cui, X., 2017, “Are People Willing to Share Their Political Opinions on Facebook? Exploring Roles of Self-Presentational Concern in Spiral of Silence,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 76, 294-302.
Ma, W. W. and Chan, A., 2014, “Knowledge Sharing and Social Media: Altruism, Perceived Online Attachment Motivation, and Perceived Online Relationship Commitment,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 39, 51-58.
Marder, B., Slade, E., Houghton, D., and Archer-Brown, C., 2016, “‘I Like Them, but Won't “Like”Them’: An Examination of Impression Management Associated with Visible Political Party Affiliation on Facebook,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 61, 280-287.
Matthes, J., Morrison, K. R., and Schemer, C., 2010, “A Spiral of Silence for Some: Attitude Certainty and the Expression of Political Minority Opinions,” Communication Research, Vol. 37, No. 6, 774-800.
McDevitt, M., Kiousis, S., and Wahl-Jorgensen, K., 2003, “Spiral of Moderation: Opinion Expression in Computer-Mediated Communication,” International Journal of Public Opinion Research, Vol. 15, 454-470.
Moy, P., Domke, D., and Stamm, D., 2001, “The Spiral of Silence and Public Opinion on Affirmative Action,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 78, 7-25.
Nahapiet, J. and Ghoshal, S., 1998, “Social Capital, Intellectual Capital, and the Organizational Advantage,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 23, No. 2, 242-266.
Nekmat, E. and Gonzenbach, W. J., 2013, “Multiple Opinion Climates in Online Forums: Role of Website Source Reference and Within-Forum Opinion Congruency,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 90, No. 4, 736-756.
Neuwirth, K., 2000, “Testing the Spiral of Silence Model: The Case of Mexico,” International Journal of Public Opinion Research, Vol. 12, No.2, 138-159.
Neuwirth, K., Frederick, E., and Mayo, C, 2007, “The Spiral of Silence and Fear of Isolation,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 57, No. 3, 450-468.
Noelle‐Neumann, E., 1974, “The Spiral of Silence a Theory of Public Opinion,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 24, No. 2, 43-51.
Noelle-Neumann, E., 1993, The Spiral of Silence: Public Opinion, Our Social Skin, 2nd, Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
Nunnally, J., 1978, Psychometric methods, 1st, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Co.
Oshagan, H., 1996, “Reference Group Influence on Opinion Expression,” International Journal of Public Opinion Research, Vol. 8, No. 4, 335-354.
Pang, N., Ho, S. S., Zhang, A. M., Ko, J. S., Low, W. X., and Tan, K. S., 2016, “Can Spiral of Silence and Civility Predict Click Speech on Facebook?” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 64, 898-905.
Pavlou, P. A., Liang, H., and Xue, Y., 2007, “Understanding and Mitigating Uncertainty in Online Exchange Relationships: A Principal-Agent Perspective,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 1, 105-136.
Pearce, K. E. and Vitak, J., 2016, “Performing Honor Online: The Affordances of Social Media for Surveillance and Impression Management in an Honor Culture,” New Media & Society, Vol. 18, No. 11, 2595-2612.
Petrič, G. and Pinter, A., 2002, “From Social Perception to Public Expression of Opinion: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach to the Spiral of Silence,” International Journal of Public Opinion Research, Vol. 14, No. 1, 37-53.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., and Podsakoff, N. P., 2003, “Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the literature and Recommended Remedies,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 88, No. 5, 879-903.
Porten-Cheé, P. and Eilders, C., 2015, “Spiral of Silence Online: How Online Communication Affects Opinion Climate Perception and Opinion Expression Regarding the Climate Change Debate,” Studies in Communication Sciences, Vol. 15, No. 1, 143-150.
Putnam, R. D., 1993, “The Prosperous Community: Social Capital and Public Life,” The American Prospect, Vol. 4, No. 13, 35-42.
Salmon, C. T. and Glynn, C. J., 2009, “Spiral of Silence: Communication and Public Opinion as Social Control,” in Stacks, D. W. and Salwen, M. B. (eds.), An Integrated Approach to Communication Theory and Research, New York, NY: Routledge, 153-168.
Salmon, C. T. and Neuwirth, K., 1990, “Perceptions of Opinion ‘Climates’ and Willingness to Discuss the Issue of Abortion,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 67, 567-577.
Salmon, C. T. and Oshagan, H., 1990, “Community Size, Perceptions of Majority Opinion, and Opinion Expression,” in Grunig, L. A. and Grunig, J. E. (eds.), Public relations research journal, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, Vol. 2, 157-171.
Scheufele, D. A., Shanahan, J., and Lee, E., 2001, “Real Talk: Manipulating the Dependent Variable in Spiral of Silence Research” Communication Research, Vol. 28, 304-324.
Scheufle, D. A. and Moy, P., 2000, “Twenty-five Years of the Spiral of Silence: A Conceptual Review and Empirical Outlook,” International Journal of Public Opinion Research, Vol. 12, No. 1, 3-28.
Schrammel, J., Köffel, C., and Tscheligi, M., 2009, “Personality Traits, Usage Patterns and Information Disclosure in Online Communities,” Proceedings of the 23rd British HCI Group Annual Conference on People and Computers: Celebrating People and Technology, 169-174.
Shanahan, J., Glynn, C., and Hayes, A., 2007, “The Spiral of Silence: A Meta-Analysis and its Impact,” in R. W. Preiss, B. M. Gayle, N. Burrell, M. Allen, and J. Bryant (eds.), Mass Media Effects Research: Advances through Meta-Analysis, First Edition, New York, NY: Routledge, 415-427.
Shoemaker, P. J., Tankard, J. W., and Lasorsa, D. L., 2004, How to Build Social Science Theories, 1st, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Soffer, O. and Gordoni, G., 2017, “Opinion Expression via User Comments on News Websites: Analysis Through the Perspective of the Spiral of Silence,” Information, Communication & Society, Vol. 21, No. 3, 388-403.
Statista., 2018, “Most Popular Social Networks Worldwide as of April 2018, Ranked by Number
of Active Users (in Millions),” https://www.statista.com/statistics/272014/global-social-networks-ranked-by-number-of-users/, accessed on January 2, 2019.
Stoycheff, E., 2016, “Under Surveillance: Examining Facebook’s Spiral of Silence Effects in the Wake of NSA Internet Monitoring,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 93, No. 2, 296-311.
Trottier, D. and Lyon, D., 2012, “Key Features of Social Media Surveillance,” Internet and Surveillance: The challenges of Web 2.0 and Social Media, Vol. 16, 89-105.
Trottier, D., 2016, Social Media as Surveillance: Rethinking Visibility in A Converging World, 1st, New York: Routledge.
Wang, M. Y., Hmielowski, J. D., Hutchens, M. J., and Beam, M. A., 2017, “Extending the Spiral of Silence: Partisan Media, Perceived Support, and Sharing Opinions Online” Journal of Information Technology & Politics, Vol. 14, No. 3, 248-262.
Warren, A. M., Sulaiman, A., and Jaafar, N. I., 2015, “Understanding Civic Engagement Behaviour on Facebook from a Social Capital Theory Perspective,” Behaviour & Information Technology, Vol. 34, No. 2, 163-175.
Wasko, M. M. and Faraj, S., 2005, “Why should I Share? Examining Social Capital and Knowledge Contribution in Electronic Networks of Practice,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 1, 35-57.
Weeks, J. W., Heimberg, R. G., Fresco, D. M., Hart, T. A., Turk, C. L., Schneier, F. R., and Liebowitz, M. R., 2005, “Empirical Validation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder,” Psychological Assessment, Vol. 17, No. 2, 179-190.
Xenos, M., Vromen, A., and Loader, B. D., 2014, “The Great Equalizer? Patterns of Social Media Use and Youth Political Engagement in Three Advanced Democracies,” Information, Communication & Society, Vol. 17, No. 2, 151-167.
Yeric, J. L. and Todd, J. R., 1996, Public Opinion: The Visible Politics, 3rd, Itasca, IL: FE Peacock Pub.
Yu, Y., Hao, J. X., Dong, X. Y., and Khalifa, M., 2013, “A Multilevel Model for Effects of Social Capital and Knowledge Sharing in Knowledge-Intensive Work Teams,” International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 33, No. 5, 780-790.
Yun, G. W. and Park, S. Y., 2011, “Selective Posting: Willingness to Post a Message Online,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 16, 201-227.
Zhang, X., Liu, S., Chen, X., and Gong, Y., 2017, “Social Capital, Motivations, and Knowledge Sharing Intention in Health Q&A Communities,” Management Decision, Vol. 55, No. 7, 1536-1557.
Zhao, L., Lu, Y., Wang, B., Chau, P. Y., and Zhang, L., 2012, “Cultivating the Sense of Belonging and Motivating User Participation in Virtual Communities: A Social Capital Perspective,” International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 32, No. 6, 574-588.
Zhong, Z. J., 2014, “Civic Engagement among Educated Chinese Youth: The Role of SNS (Social Networking Services), Bonding and Bridging Social Capital,” Computers & Education, Vol. 75, 263-273