Institute of Technology Management, National Tsing Hua University; College of Management, Yuan Ze University; Institute of Technology Management, National Tsing Hua University
本文強調在組織與管理的學術研究中，定量方法有它的優點，定性方法也有它的強項，兩者並非完全互斥，對於特定現象的分析與解讀，可以透過二者之綜效，發揮方法三角驗證的精神，以求得到更全面與系統性的認識。對於不同現象的存在，需要不同的理論與方法解釋的典範思維下，我們指出當實體具有秩序與混沌的二重性時，是最適合採用質量融合的研究方法。據此，本文立基於複雜科學的觀點，發展出一個質量融合的研究大綱，包括：啟動研究、蒐集量化資料、選取適合的量化模型、以定性觀點詮釋複雜系統，以及結束研究等五個步驟。(139_M5b2c5a6aa9db8_Abs.pdf(File does not exist))
Both quantitative and qualitative methods are important to the analysis of organization and management, and they are certainly not opposed to each other. Increasingly, researchers have called for more attention to the design of method triangulation that has the potential to enhance the reliability and validity of research findings. Given that ontology will determine epistemology, we argue that when the problems or realities demonstrate the characteristics of order-chaos dualism, a mixed method approach is most applicable. Accordingly, in this paper we attempt to develop a program for conducting such research. The program includes five steps: initiating, collecting quantitative data, determining a proper mathematical model, interpreting the complexity qualitatively, and ending the program.(139_M5b2c5a6aa9db8_Abs.pdf(File does not exist))
Quantitative, Qualitative, Mixed Method, Triangulation, Complexity Science
本文強調在組織與管理的學術研究中，定量方法有它的優點，定性方法也有它的強項，兩者並非完全互斥，對於特定現象的分析與解讀，可以透過二者之綜效，發揮三角驗證（Method Triangulation）的精神，以求得到更全面、系統性的認識。就政策與管理的意涵，我們將從學術體系的上游（政策規劃）以及學術體系的下游（教學與教育）來闡述之。 第一，在政策規劃方面，對於政府相關政策的制定者而言，我們建議在研究計畫的審查標準與核定上要有所調整，應該要多補助與支持一些具有跨領域創新精神的計畫，從制度方面進行著手，才能夠真正對學術的進展有所影響。隨著組織與管理所探討的議題日趨多元且複雜，問題的解決、資料的蒐集、以及研究方法的設計上，也要具備像是質、量調和觀點的跨領域創新。除了政府單位，學術期刊對於學術的發展也扮演相當關鍵的角色，本文建議期刊的編輯與審查人，應該要多給這類型的研究有刊登或發表的機會，如此才能夠推動不同領域之間學者的對話，也比較能夠促進學術社群的豐富性。 第二，在教學與教育方面，我們認為培養學生具有跨領域思維的工作，在大專院校裡服務的老師們也同樣責無旁貸。不管是碩士班還是博士班，本文建議指導教授都應該要多鼓勵學生勇於嘗試不同的研究方法，以創新的思維看待問題，進行跨領域的對話，而非固守一方、孤芳自賞。同時採用不同領域的研究方法在單一的實證研究中，在國外的學術圈已經被普遍認可，且儼然是許多領域追求創新與成長的途徑之一，在未來只會愈來愈競爭的學術社群，這種思維是必要的。除此之外，身為大學校園裡的學術行政主管，也應該要以身作則，在各個系所中戮力推動這個氛圍，像是舉辦研究方法的分享會、討論會、以及工作坊等，以促進學術圈的「梅迪奇效應」（Medici Effect）。
Alvesson, M. and Sköldberg, K., 2000, Reflexive Methodology: New Vitas for Qualitative Research, 1st, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Amaratunga, D., Baldry, D., Sarshar, M., and Newton, R., 2002, “Quantitative and Qualitative Research in the Built Environment: Application of ‘Mixed’ Research Approach,” Work Study, Vol. 51, No. 1, 17-31.
Anderson, P. and Tushman, M. L., 1990, “Technological Discontinuities and Dominant Designs: A Cyclical Model of Technological Change,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 35, No. 4, 604-633.
Ang, S. and Bamberger, P., 2016, “The Quantitative Discovery: What is It and How to Get It Published,” Academy of Management Discovery, Vol. 2, No. 1, 1-6.
Ashmos, D. P., Ducheon, D., McDaniel, R. R., and Huonker, J. W., 2002, “What a Mess! Participation as a Simple Managerial Rule to ‘Complexify’ Organizations,” Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 39, No. 2, 189-206.
Astley, W. G. and Van de Ven, A. H., 1983, “Central Perspectives and Debates in Organization Theory,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 28, No. 2, 245-273.
Audretsch, D. B., 1991, “New-Firm Survival and the Technological Regime,” Review of Economics and Statistics, Vol. 73, No. 3, 441-450.
Bacharach, S. B., 1989, “Organizational Theories: Some Criteria for Evaluation,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 14, No. 4, 496-515.
Barley, S. R., 1986, “Technology as an Occasion for Structuring: Evidence from Observations of CT Scanners and the Social Order of Radiology Departments,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 1, 78-108.
Barley, S. R. and Tolbert, P. S., 1997, “Institutionalization and Structuration: Studying the Links between Action and Institution,” Organization Studies, Vol. 18, No. 1, 93-117.
Battilana, J. B., Leca, B., and Boxenbaum, E. V. A., 2009, “How Actors Change Institutions: Towards a Theory of Institutional Entrepreneurship,” Academy of Management Annuals, Vol. 3, No. 1, 65-107.
Behling, O., 1980, “The Case for the Natural Science Model for Research in Organizational Behavior and Organization Theory,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 5, No. 4, 483-490.
Beinhocker, E. D., 1997, “Strategy at the Edge of Chaos,” McKinsey Quarterly, Vol. 1, 24-39.
Berger, P. L. and Luckmann, T., 1966, The Social Construction of Reality: A Treatise in the Sociology of Knowledge, 1st, Garden City, NY: Anchor Books.
Bitektine, A., 2008, “Prospective Case Study Design: Qualitative Method for Deductive Theory Testing,” Organizational Research Methods, Vol. 11, No. 1, 160-180.
Boes, D. C. and Salas, J. D., 1978, “Nonstationarity of the Mean and the Hurst Phenomenon,” Water Resources Research, Vol. 14, No. 1, 135-143.
Boisot, M. and Child, J., 1999, “Organizations as Adaptive Systems in Complex Environments: The Case of China,” Organization Science, Vol. 10, No. 3, 237-252.
Boisot, M. and McKelvey, B., 2010, “Integrating Modernist and Postmodernist Perspectives on Organizations: A Complexity Science Bridge,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 35, No. 3, 415-433.
Bourdieu, P. and Wacquant, L. J. D., 1992, An Invitation to Reflexive Sociology, 1st, Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Box, G. E. P. and Pierce, D. A., 1970, “Distributions of Residual Autocorrelations in Autoregressive-Integrated Moving Average Methods,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, Vol. 65, No. 332, 1509-1526.
Brown, S. and Eisenhardt, K. M., 1998, Competing on the Edge: Strategy as Structured Chaos, 1st, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Breslin, D., 2014, “Calm in the Storm: Simulating the Management of Organizational Co-Evolution,” Futures, Vol. 57, No. 1, 62-77.
Bryman, A., 2006, “Integrating Quantitative and Qualitative Research: How is It Done?” Qualitative Research, Vol. 6, No. 1, 97-113.
Burrell, G. and Morgan, G., 1979, Sociological Paradigms and Organisational Analysis: Elements of the Sociology of Corporate Life, 1st, London, UK: Heinemann.
Burton, R. and Obel, B., 2011, “Computational Modeling for What-Is, What-Might-Be, and What-Should-Be Studies - and Triangulation,” Organization Science, Vol. 22, No. 5, 1195-1202.
Chalmers, A. F., 1999, What is this Thing Called Science?, 3rd, Buckingham, UK: Open University Press.
Cheng, Y. C. and Van de Ven, A. H., 1996, “Learning the Innovation Journey: Order out of Chaos?” Organization Science, Vol. 7, No. 6, 593-614.
Christensen, C. M., 1997, The Innovator's Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail, 1st, Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.
Coffey, A. and Atkinson, P., 1996, Making Sense of Qualitative Data: Complementary Research Strategies, 1st, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Cook, T. D. and Campbell, D. T., 1979, Quasi-Experimentation: Design & Analysis Issues for Field Settings, 1st, Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.
Creswell, J. W., 1999, “Mixed Method Research: Introduction and Application” in Cizek, G. J. (ed.), Handbook of Educational Policy, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 455-472.
Creswell, J. W. and Clark, V. L. P., 2007, Designing and Conducting Mixed Methods Research, 1st, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Crutchfield, J. P., Farmer, J. D., Packard, N. H., and Shaw, R. S., 1986, “Chaos,” Scientific American, Vol. 254, No. 2, 46-57.
Daft, R. L., 1983, “Learning the Craft of Organizational Research,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 8, No. 4, 539-546.
Davis, J. P., Eisenhardt, K. M., and Bingham, C. B., 2009, “Optimal Structure, Market Dynamism, and the Strategy of Simple Rules,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 54, No. 3, 413-452.
deMarrais, K. B., 1998, Inside Stories: Qualitative Research Reflections, Mahwah, 1st, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Denzin, N., 1970, The Research Act: A Theoretical Introduction to Sociological Methods, 1st, New York: McGraw Hill.
Denzin, N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S., 1994, The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 1st, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
DiMaggio, P. J., 1995, “Comments on ‘What Theory is Not’,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 40, No. 3, 391-397.
Diesing, P., 1966, “Objectivism vs. Subjectivism in the Social Science,” Philosophy of Science, Vol. 33, No. 1/2, 124-133.
Dolan, S. L., Garcia, S., and Auerbach, A., 2003, “Understanding and Managing Chaos in Organisations,” International Journal of Management, Vol. 20, No. 1, 23-35.
Dooley, K. J. and Van de Ven, A. H., 1999, “Explaining Complex Organizational Dynamics,” Organization Science, Vol. 10, No. 3, 358-372.
Dosi, G., 1982, “Technological Paradigms and Technological Trajectories: A Suggested Interpretation of the Determinants and Directions of Technical Change,” Research Policy, Vol. 11, No. 3, 147-162.
Dover, G. and Lawrence, T., 2010, “A Gap Year for Institutional Theory: Integrating the Study of Institutional Work and Participatory Action Research,” Journal of Management Inquiry, Vol. 19, No. 4, 305-316.
Dubinskas, F. A., 1994, “On the Edge of Chaos: A Metaphor for Transformative Change,” Journal of Management Inquiry, Vol. 3, No. 4, 355-366.
Dyer, W. G. and Wilkins, A. L., 1991, “Better Stories, not Better Constructs, to Generate Better Theory: A Rejoinder to Eisenhardt,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 16, No. 3, 613-619.
Eamshaw, J. C. and Haughey, D., 1993, “Lyapunov Exponents for Pedestrians,” American Journal of Physics, Vol. 61, No. 5, 401-407.
Eisenhardt, K. M., 1989, “Building Theories from Case Study Research,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 14, No. 4, 532-550.
Eisenhardt, K. M. and Graebner, M. E., 2007, “Theory Building from Cases: Opportunities and Challenges,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 50, No. 1, 25-32.
Evered, R. and Louis, M. R., 1981, “Alternative Perspectives in the Organizational Sciences: ‘Inquiry from the Inside’ and ‘Inquiry from the Outside’,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 6, No. 3, 385-395.
Fremeth, A. R., Holburn, G. L. F., and Richter, B. K., 2016, “Bridging Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Organizational Research: Applications of Synthetic Control Methodology in the U.S. Automobile Industry,” Organization Science, Vol. 27, No. 2, 462-482.
Gadamer, H. G., 1975, Truth and Method, 1st, New York: Continuum.
Garud, R., Gehman, J., and Kumaraswamy, A., 2011, “Complexity Arrangements for Sustained Innovation: Lessons from 3M Corporation,” Organization Studies, Vol. 32, No. 6, 737-767.
Geels, F. W., 2004, “From Sectoral Systems of Innovation to Socio-Technical Systems: Insights about Dynamics and Change from Sociology and Institutional Theory,” Research Policy, Vol. 33, No. 6/7, 897-920.
Geertz, C., 1983, Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology, 1st, New York: Basic Books.
Gephart, R. P., 1993, “The Textual Approach: Risk and Blame in Disaster Sensemaking,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 36, No. 3, 1465-1514.
Gephart, R. P., 2004, “Qualitative Research and the Academy of Management Journal,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 47, No. 4, 454-462.
Gephart, R. P., 2006, “Ethnostatistics and Organizational Research Methodologies,” Organizational Research Methods, Vol. 9, No. 4, 417-431.
Gerring, J., 2004, “What is a Case Study and What is it Good for?” American Political Science Review, Vol. 98, No. 2, 341-354.
Geyer, R., 2003, “Beyond the Third Way: The Science of Complexity and the Politics of Choice,” British Journal of Politics and International Relations, Vol. 5, No. 2, 237-257.
Gibbert, M., Ruigrok, W., and Wicki, B., 2008, “What Passes as a Rigorous Case Study?” Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 29, No. 13, 1465-1474.
Giddens, A., 1984, The Construction of Society: Outline of the Theory of Structuration, 1st, Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.
Gioia, D. and Pitre, E., 1990, “Multiparadigm Perspectives on Theory Building,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 15, No. 4, 584-602.
Gleick, J., 1987, Chaos: Making a New Science, 1st, New York: Viking Books.
Golden-Biddle, K. and Locke, K., 1993, “Appealing Work: An Investigation of How Ethnographic Texts Convince,” Organization Science, Vol. 4, No. 4, 595-616.
Granger, C. W. J., 1981, “Some Properties of Time Series Data and Their Use in Econometric Model Specification,” Journal of Econometrics, Vol. 16, No. 1, 121-130.
Grassberger, P. and Procaccia, I., 1983, “Measuring the Strangeness of Strange Attractor,” Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, Vol. 9, No. 1/2, 189-208.
Greene, J. C., Sommerfeld, P., and Haight, W. L., 2010, “Mixing Methods in Social Work Research” in Shaw, I., Briar-Lawson, K., Orme, J., and Ruckdeschel, R. (eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Social Work Research, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Gregersen, H. and Sailer, I., 1993, “Chaos Theory and its Implications for Social Science Research,” Human Relations, Vol. 46, No. 7, 777-802.
Guba, E. G. and Lincoln, Y. S., 1994, “Competing Paradigms in Qualitative Research” in Denzin, N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, 1st, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Habermas, J., 1972, Knowledge and Human Interests: A General Perspective, 1st, London, UK: Heinermann.
Hargadon, A. B. and Douglas, Y., 2001, “When Innovations Meet Institutions: Edison and the Design of the Electric Light,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 46, No. 3, 476-501.
Hassard, J., 1991, “Multiple Paradigms and Organizational Analysis: A Case Study,” Organization Studies, Vol. 12, No. 2, 275-299.
Hassard, J. and Cox, J. W., 2013, “Can Sociological Paradigms Still Inform Organizational Analysis? A Paradigm Model for Post-Paradigm Times,” Organization Studies, Vol. 34, No. 11, 1701-1728.
Hung, S. C., 2004, “Explaining the Process of Innovation: The Dynamic Reconciliation of Action and Structure,” Human Relation, Vol. 57, No. 11, 1479-1497.
Hung, S. C. and Tu, M. F., 2014, “Is Small Actually Big? The Chaos of Technological Change,” Research Policy, Vol. 43, No. 7, 1227-1238.
Jackson, N. and Carter, P., 1991, “In Defence of Paradigm Incommensurability,” Organization Studies, Vol. 12, No. 1, 109-127.
Jayanthi, S. and Sinha, K. K., 1998, “Innovation Implementation in High Technology Manufacturing: A Chaos-Theoretic Empirical Analysis,” Journal of Operations Management, Vol. 16, No. 4, 471-494.
Jick, T. D., 1979, “Mixing Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Triangulation in Action,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 4, 602-611.
Johns, G., 2006, “The Essential Impact of Context on Organizational Behavior,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 31, No. 2, 386-408.
Johnson, R. B., Onwuegbuzie, A. J., and Turner, L. A., 2007, “Toward a Definition of Mixed Methods Research,” Journal of Mixed Methods Research, Vol. 1, No. 2, 112-133.
Kaplan, B. and Duchon, D., 1988, “Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Information Systems Research: A Case Study,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 12, No. 4, 571-586.
Kauffman, S., 1993, The Origins of Order: Self Organization and Selection in Evolution, 1st, New York: Oxford University Press.
Kauffman, S. A., 1995, “Technology and Evolution: Escaping the Red Queen Effect,” McKinsey Quarterly, Vol. 1, 119-129.
Kauffman, S. A. and Johnsen, S., 1991, “Coevolution to the Edge of Chaos: Coupled Fitness Landscapes, Poised States, and Coevolutionary Avalanches,” Journal of Theoretical Biology, Vol. 149, No. 4, 467-505.
Kemmis, S. and McTaggart, R., 1994, “Participatory Action Research: Communicative Action and Public Sphere” in Denzin, N. K. and Lincoln, Y. S. (eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Research, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Ketterer, J. J., 2006, “Chaos and Complexity: The Uses of the Foremost Metaphor of the New Millennium,” International Management Review, Vol. 2, No. 3, 34-55.
Koput, K. W., 1997, “A Chaotic Model of Innovative Search: Some Answers, Many Questions,” Organization Science, Vol. 8, No. 5, 528-542.
Kuhn, T. S., 1962, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, 1st, Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.
Langley, A., 1999, “Strategies for Theorizing from Process Data,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 24, No. 4, 691-710.
Larsson, R., 1993, “Case Study Methodology: Quantitative Analysis of Patterns Across Case Studies,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 36, No. 6, 1515-1546.
Lassack, M. R., 1997, “Of Chaos and Complexity: Managerial Insights from a New Science,” Management Decision, Vol. 35, No. 3, 205-218.
Lee, H. L., Padmanabhan, V., and Whang, S., 1997, “Information Distortion in a Supply Chain: The Bullwhip Effect,” Management Science, Vol. 43, No. 4, 546-558.
Leonard-Barton, D., 1990, “A Dual Methodology for Case Studies: Synergistic Use of a Longitudinal Single Site with Replicated Multiple Sites,” Organization Science, Vol. 1, No. 3, 248-266.
Levy, D., 1994, “Chaos Theory and Strategy: Theory, Application, and Managerial Implications,” Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 15, No. 2, 167-178.
Lewis, M. W. and Grimes, A. J., 1999, “Metatriangulation: Building Theory from Multiple Paradigms,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 24, No. 4, 672-690.
Li, T. Y. and Yorke, J. A., 1975, “Period Three Implies Chaos,” The American Mathematical Monthly, Vol. 82, No. 10, 985-992.
Lincoln, Y. S. and Guba, E. G., 1985, Naturalistic Inquiry, 1st, Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Lorenz, E., 1963, “Deterministic Nonperiodic Flow,” Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 20, No. 2, 130-141.
Lorenz, E., 1972, “Predictability: Does the Flap of a Butterfly’s Wings in Brazil Set Off a Tornado in Texas,” American Association for the Advancement of Science, 1st, Washington, DC.
Luthans, F. and Davis, T. R. V., 1982, “An Idiographic Approach to Organizational Behavior Research: The Use of Single Case Experimental Designs and Direct Measures,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 7, No. 3, 380-391.
Maguire, S., McKelvey, B., Mirabeau, L., and Öztas, N., 2006, “Complexity Science and Organization Studies. In Clegg, S. R., Hardy, C., Lawrence, T. B. and Nord, W. R. (eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Organization Studies, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Malerba, F. and Orsenigo, L., 1993, “Technological Regimes and Firm Behavior,” Industrial and Corporate Change, Vol. 2, No. 1, 45-71.
March, J. G., 1991, “Exploration and Exploitation in Organizational Learning,” Organization Science, Vol. 2, No. 1, 71-87.
Masterman, M., 1970, “The Nature of a Paradigm” in Lakatos, I. and Musgrave, A. (eds.), Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge: Volume 4: Proceedings of the International Colloquium in the Philosophy of Science, London, 1965, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Mathews, K. M., White, M. C., and Long, R. G., 1999, “Why Study the Complexity Sciences in the Social Sciences?” Human Relations, Vol. 52, No. 4, 439-462.
Mesa, O. J. and Poveda, G., 1993, “The Hurst Effect: The Scale of Fluctuation Approach,” Water Resources Research, Vol. 29, No. 12, 3995-4002.
Miles, M. B., 1979, “Qualitative Data as an Attractive Nuisance: The Problem of Analysis,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 4, 590-601.
Mintzberg, H., 1979, “An Emerging Strategy of ‘Direct’ Research,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 4, 590-589.
Modell, S., 2010, “Bridging the Paradigm Divide in Management Accounting Research: The Role of Mixed Methods Approaches,” Management Accounting Research, Vol. 21, No. 2, 124-129.
Monge, P. R., 1990, “Theoretical and Analytical Issues in Studying Organizational Processes,” Organization Science, Vol.1, No. 4, 406-430.
Morçöl, G., 2001, “What is Complexity Science? Postmodernist or Postpositivist?” Emergence, Vol. 3, No. 1, 104-119.
Morçöl, G., 2006, “A New Systems Thinking: Implications of the Sciences of Complexity for Public and Administration,” Public Administration Quarterly, Vol. 29, No. 3-4: 297-320.
Morel, B. and Ramanujam, R., 1999, “Through the Looking Glass of Complexity: The Dynamics of Organizations as Adaptive and Evolving Systems,” Organization Science, Vol. 10, No. 3, 278-293.
Morgan, G. and Smircich, L., 1980, “The Case for Qualitative Research,” Acamey of Management Review, Vol. 5, No. 4, 491-500.
Morris, M. W., Leung, K., Ames, D., and Lickel, B., 1999, “Views from Inside and Outside: Integrating Emic and Etic Insights about Culture and Justice Judgment,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 24, No. 4, 781-796.
Nelson, R. R. and Winter, S. G., 1982, An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change, 1st, Cambridge, MA: The Belknap Press.
Noor, K. B. M., 2008, “Case Study: A Strategic Research Methodology,” American Journal of Applied Sciences, Vol. 5, No. 11, 1602-1604.
Pascale, R. T., 1999, “Surfing the Edge of Chaos,” Sloan Management Review, Vol. 40, No. 3, 83-94.
Pettigrew, A., 1985, The Awakening Giant: Continuity and Change in Imperial Chemical Industries, 1st, Oxford, UK: Blackwell.
Pettigrew, A. M., Woodman, R. W., and Cameron, K. S., 2001, “Studying Organizational Change and Development: Challenges for Future Research,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 44, No. 4, 697-713.
Pike, K. L., 1967, Language in Relation to a Unified Theory of the Structure of Human Behavior, 1st, The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton.
Plowman, D. A., Baker, L. T., Beck, T. E., Kulkarni, M., Solansky, S. T., and Travis, D. V., 2007, “Radical Change Accidentally: The Emergence and Amplification of Small Change,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 50, No. 3, 515-543.
Popper, K., 1959, The Logic of Scientific Discovery, 1st, London, UK: Hutchinson.
Popper, K., 1972, Objective Knowledge: An Evolutionary Approach, 1st, Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.
Radzicki, M. J., 1990, “Institutional Dynamics, Deterministic Chaos, and Self-Organizing Systems,” Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 24, No. 1, 57-102.
Ragin, C. C. and Becker, H. S., 1992, What is a Case? Exploring the Foundations of Social Inquiry, 1st, New York: Cambridge University Press.
Rao, H., 1994, “The Social Construction of Reputation: Certification Contests, Legitimation, and the Survival of Organizations in the American Automobile Industry: 1895-1912,” Strategic Management Journal, Vol. 15, No. S1, 29-44.
Ritzer, G., 1975, “Sociology: A Multiple Paradigm Science,” The American Sociologist, Vol. 10, No. 3, 156-167.
Sale, J. E., Lohfeld, L. H., and Brazil, K., 2002, “Revisiting the Quantitative-Qualitative Debate: Implications for Mixed-Methods Research,” Quality & Quantity, Vol. 36, No. 1, 43-53.
Scheier, C. and Tschacher, W., 1996, “Appropriate Algorithms for Nonlinear Time Series Analysis in Psychology” in Sulis, W. and Combs, A. (eds.), Nonlinear Dynamics in Human Behavior, River Edge, NJ: World Scientific.
Schindehutte, M. and Morris, M. H., 2009, “Advancing Strategic Entrepreneurship Research: The Role of Complexity Science in Shifting the Paradigm,” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, Vol. 33, No. 1, 241-276.
Shah, S. K. and Corley, K. G., 2006, “Building Better Theory by Bridging the Quantitative-Qualitative Divide,” Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 43, No. 8, 1821-1835.
Siggelkow, N., 2007, “Persuasion with Case Studies,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 50, No. 1, 20-24.
Smith, J. K. and Heshusius, L., 1986, “Closing Down the Conversation: The End of the Quantitative-Qualitative Debate among Educational Inquirers,” Educational Researcher, Vol. 15, No. 1, 4-12.
Spradley, J. P., 1980, Participant Observation, 1st, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Strauss, A. and Corbin, J. M., 1990, Basics of Qualitative Research: Grounded Theory Procedures and Techniques, 1st, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Sutton, R. I. and Staw, B. M., 1995, “What Theory is Not,” Administrative Science Quarterly, Vol. 40, No. 3, 371-384.
Tashakkori, A. and Creswell, J. W., 2007, “The New Era of Mixed Methods,” Journal of Mixed Methods Research, Vol. 1, No. 1, 3-7.
Tashakkori, A. and Teddlie, C. B., 1998, Mixed Methodology: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, 1st, London, UK: Sage.
Teece, D. J., 1986, “Profiting from Technological Innovation: Implications for Integration, Collaboration, Licensing and Public Policy,” Research Policy, Vol. 15, No. 6, 285-305.
Thiétart, R. A. and Forgues, B., 1997, “Action, Structure and Chaos,” Organization Studies, Vol. 18, No. 1, 119-143.
Trochim, W. M. K., 1989, “Outcome Pattern Matching and Program Theory,” Evaluation and Program Planning, Vol. 12, No. 4, 355-366.
Utterback, J. M. and Abernathy, W. J., 1975, “A Dynamic Model of Process and Product Innovation,” Omega, Vol. 3, No. 6, 639-656.
Van de Ven, A. H., 1986, “Central Problems in the Management of Innovation,” Management Science, Vol. 32, No. 5, 590-607.
Van Maanen, J., 1998, “Different Strokes: Qualitative Research in the Administrative Science Quarterly from 1956 to 1996” in Van Maanen, J. (ed.), Qualitative Studies of Organizations, 1st, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
van Staveren, I., 1999, “Chaos Theory and Institutional Economics: Metaphor or Model?” Journal of Economic Issues, Vol. 33, No. 1, 141.
Varho, V. and Tapio, P., 2013, “Combining the Qualitative and Quantitative with the Q2 Scenario Technique: The Case of Transport and Climate,” Technological Forecasting & Social Change, Vol. 80, No. 4, 611-630.
Venkatesh, V., Brown, S. A., and Bala, H., 2013, “Bridging the Qualitative-Quantitative Divide: Guidelines for Conducting Mixed Methods Research in Information Systems,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 37, No. 1, 21-54.
Vicenzi, R. and Adkins, G., 2000, “A Tool for Assessing Organizational Vitality in an Era of Complexity,” Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Vol. 64, No. 1, 101-113.
Waldrop, M. M., 1993, Complexity: The Emerging Science at the Edge of Order and Chaos, 1st, New York: Simon & Schuster.
Whittington, R., 1988, “Environmental Structure and Theories of Strategic Choice,” Journal of Management Studies, Vol. 25, No. 6, 521-536.
Wolf, A., Swift, J. B., Swinney, H. L., and Vastano, J. A., 1985, “Determining Lyapunov Exponents from a Time Series,” Physica D: Nonlinear Phenomena, Vol. 16, No. 3, 285-317.
Yin, R. K., 1984, Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 1st, Newbury Park, CA: Sage.