Sun Yat-Sen Management Review

  Journal Fullview

Sun Yat-Sen Management Review  1998/12

Vol. 6, No.4  p.1137-1170


Title
中小企業電腦化與組織變革過程:一個服務業之個案探討
Organizational Change Processes and Computerization for Small Business: A Case Study of Service Organization
(633512100557187500.pdf 1,342KB)

Author
侯君溥/國立中山大學
Chin-Fu Ho/

National Sun Yat-Sen University


Abstract(Chinese)

在今日變動快速的社會中,資訊科技的應用已成為提昇組織績效的趨勢,伴隨電腦化作業往往牽動企業組織流程合理化之安排,這對缺乏資源的中小企業,往往是一個嚴峻的挑戰,這也說明園內中小企業電腦化比例偏低之原因。中小企業導入MIS 系統時,合理化與電腦化的優先順序之爭議存在已久,但少見相關理論之探討與實證研究。 依據系統實施理論,這爭論代表組織變革過程的型態,跳躍抑或緩和漸進。本文應用組織學習與組織適應理論來探討中小企業適合何種之變革過程。先是以以組織學習理論由嘗試中學習的觀點來描述MIS 系統之實施,學習的關鍵是技術供應商與組織使用者問知識相互移轉過程。在中小企業脈 絡中,組織使用者的吸收能力之強弱將主導對此知識移轉過程,從而決定合理化與電腦化的優先順序。若從組織適應觀點出發,組織所面對的環境壓力與策略性選擇空間對技術引進有相當影響,合理化與電腦化的優先順序取決於環境影響程度與策略性選擇之自由度的組合。 本研究之實證結果與組織適應理論之預測不盡符合,其失敗原因在於產業競爭觀點未必能完全解釋組織創新行為。中小企業吸收能力差者,宜先合理化後電腦化,而電腦化所帶來的知識與經驗對形成組織之吸收能力有相當幫助,對下一階段之合理化亦有影響。

(633512100556562500.pdf 220KB)

KeyWord(Chinese)

組織變革、組織學習、組織適應


Abstract(English)

In today's fast changing world, implementation of information technology has become a major trend of productivity improvement in business organizations. Computerization movement often involves with rationalization in organizational processes. This constitutes ·a serious challenge for small business whose accessibility to resources is generally limited due to its size. The argument about the priority sequence between rationalization and computerization has been around for a long time, but pertinent theoretical discussion and associated empirical studies are seldom found. This argument can be attributed to the area of system implementation. A certain priority sequence underlies the philosophy of organization change strategy-radical or evolutionary. This paper addresses such strategic issue by applying organizational learning and organizational adaptation theories to the context of small business. Deploying MIS system is first described by the notion of learning by trying in organizational learning theory. What is required in learning is the knowledge transfer process that interacts upon vendor and organization user. In the context of small business, the absorptive capacity of organization user has more influence on the success of the knowledge transfer process than the counterpart of vendor. This in turn determines the priority sequence between rationalization and computerization. In light of organizational adaptation theory, environmental determinism and strategic choice are two important constructs in technology acquisition. The combination of these two constructs dictates the priority sequence between rationalization and computerization. The empirical findings of the study show results inconsistent with the predictions made by organizational adaptation theory. The inadequacy lies in that the competitive framework may not be capable of explaining the organizational innovation behavior. The organization that presents weak absorptive capacity should place rationalization before computerization. The knowledge and experience accumulated in the computerization facilitates the formation of organization's absorptive capacity, and will have positive impact upon rationalization in the next stage.

(633512100556562500.pdf 220KB)

KeyWord(English)

Organizational Change, Organizational learning, Organizational adaption


Policy and management implications
(Available only in Chinese)

中小企業由於本身缺乏資訊科技之專業知識與從業人員,往往將其資訊系統以委外方式處理。由此牽動技術供應商(Vendor)與使用者組織(User organization)間之關係。在使用者組織來說,必須決定委外之項目及內涵,合約,與技術供應商之關係。就技術供應商而言,則需就使用者組織之需求,提供技術知識,使資訊系統得以順利導入。兩者互動之結果,在資訊系統導入之層面,呈現組織合理化與電腦化優先程序之爭議。 國內中小企業素以本身之專業能力與彈性應變著稱,但在資訊處理能力方面,普遍有待加強。資訊科技之投資通常是昂貴且須掌握變動趨勢,委諸於專業較為適合,中小企業不須以很高的代價建立自己的資訊處理能力,可與技術供應商建立策略夥伴關係,以較低的代價取得資訊科技資源。 本文建議中小企業如何就本身之條件來應用資訊科技,組織學習資訊科技能力較差者,不宜貿然從事資訊科技之導入。技術通常是邏輯之產物,須遵循嚴謹之規範,方能正常運作。在此情況,企業宜先從事合理化,待組織之作業程序能按部就班後,方能導入資訊科技。由於資訊系統本身即代表一套對組織流程的處理方法,中小企業組織學習能力強者,可同時進行合理化與電腦化,竟全功於一役。


References