Institute of Technology Management, National Tsing Hua University; Department of International Business, Tunghai University; Department of Information Management, National Taiwan University; Department of Information Management, National Central University
搜尋引擎是當前網路行銷最重要的傳播媒體，在搜尋引擎曝光被認為是有效的品牌行銷策略。然而，過去的研究發現使用者的知識結構不同對品牌效果均有所差異。本研究乃援引說服知識模式來探討在重複曝光下，網路使用者的產品知識與說服知識對品牌記憶與品牌態度的影響；此外，行動裝置與PC螢幕尺寸有所差異，亦可能影響對使用者的品牌效果。研究顯示，在重複曝光下，會提升使用者的品牌記憶與品牌態度；高產品知識相較低產品知識者，不會有較好的品牌記憶卻較快趨近記憶的門檻；當曝光次數增加，產品知識的高低對品牌態度會產生顯著差異；未被觸發說服知識者相較被觸發者擁有較好的品牌記憶；螢幕大小對品牌記憶與態度並無影響。(148_M5f6998fdb6ae0_Abs.pdf(File does not exist))
Search engines are the most important media for online marketing. Exposure in search engines is considered an effective brand marketing strategy. Previous research suggests that different knowledge constructs of users bring about different brand effectiveness. The study examines how users’ knowledge constructs influence brand memory and attitude when search results are repeated. Furthermore, the study also examines the effect of screen sizes on which search results are displayed. The findings show that brand memory and attitude increase with more repetition; high topic knowledge does not lead to better brand memory but wear-out more quickly; when exposure increases, user’s topic knowledge has a significant difference in brand attitude; those who are not primed by persuasion knowledge have a better brand memory than those who are primed; there is no difference in brand memory and attitude between screen sizes.(148_M5f6998fdb6ae0_Abs.pdf(File does not exist))
Internet Marketing, Brand Effectiveness, Persuasion Knowledge, Repetitive Exposures, Screen Size
本研究探討品牌效果，援引說服知識模式探討在搜尋結果頁的重複曝光下，網路使用者的知識結構對品牌記憶與品牌態度的影響。同時亦探討在行動時代，品牌效果是否受到螢幕尺寸的影響。 研究顯示，在重複曝光下，會提升使用者的品牌記憶與品牌態度；高產品知識相較低產品知識者，不會有較好的品牌記憶卻較快趨近記憶的門檻；當曝光次數增加，產品知識高低對品牌態度會產生顯著差異；未被觸發說服知識者相較被觸發者擁有較好的品牌記憶；螢幕大小對品牌記憶與態度並無影響。 本研究結果能夠指導企業強化搜尋引擎行銷策略規劃，而達到品牌行銷最佳效果。管理意涵為： （一）多種關鍵字重複曝光可提升品牌效果 搜尋結果能夠隨著曝光次數增加而對品牌記憶與品牌態度產生正向影響。然而使用者鮮少使用相同關鍵字反覆查詢，廠商可依品牌、分類及親合三種搜尋類型，分析使用者慣常使用的關鍵字進行廣告投放，可以產生更多的重複曝光機會。 （二）善用自然搜尋與關鍵字廣告優點 品牌呈現在自然搜尋結果（未被觸發），對使用者的品牌記憶會優於關鍵字廣告（被觸發）。然而，自然搜尋結果之排名難以控制，但是關鍵字廣告可以，因此企業可酌於投放關鍵字廣告來彌補自然搜尋排名的不足，兩者互補之。 （三）廣告設計及網頁內容迎合使用者特質 低產品知識者較容易受到情境因素的影響，較容易產生同化效果，本研究亦顯示，未被觸發說服知識者擁有較好的品牌記憶。因此企業可據以改善搜尋引擎行銷布局，譬如，以簡單易懂的廣告來打動低產品知識者，亦同時加強網頁內容及顯示在SERP自然搜尋結果的標題及摘要，來吸引高產品知識者注目。 （四）著重行動優先的行銷策略 實證顯示，大小螢幕使用者對品牌記憶與品牌態度並無顯著差異，然而，在高重複曝光下，大螢幕者的品牌記憶率低於小螢幕者，據此，對於小螢幕者可進行較多的曝光。此外Google搜尋排名以行動優先（小螢幕），企業可放大腳步於行動族群進行密集的品牌推廣，以創造最佳行銷效果。
林耕葆，2016，以說服知識模式與螢幕尺寸探討關鍵字廣告的重複曝光對品牌記憶與品牌態度之影響，國立中央大學資訊管理學系碩士論文。(Lin, G. B., 2016, The Effect of Repetition of Keyword Advertising on Brand Recognition and Attitude with Persuasion Knowledge Model and Screen Size, Master Dissertation, National Central University.)
科技新報，2015，「Google 將針對行動裝置修改搜尋演算法」，https://technews.tw/2015/04/20/google-will-be-changing-up-your-mobile-search-results-read-more-httpwww-digitaltrends-commobilegoogle-changing-mobile-search-resultsixzz3xljtxlei-follow-us-digitaltrends-on-twitter-digit/, accessed on April 25, 2018. (Tech News, 2015, “Google will modify the search algorithm for mobile devices,” accessed on April 25, 2018.)
楊泓極，2003，前置廣告之背景效果對消費者評價後置廣告之影響，國立政治大學企業管理研究所碩士論文。(Yang, H. C., 2003, The Contextual Effects of the Former Ad on Consumers’ Evaluations of the Latter Ad, Master Dissertation, National Chengchi University.)
劉佩婷，2013，關鍵字廣告不被點擊也能獲得品牌態度：以重複曝光效果討論，中國文化大學國際貿易學系碩士論文。(Liu, P. T., 2013, Keyword Advertising Can Obtain Brand Attitude without Clicking: The Aspect of Mere Exposure Effect, Master Dissertation, Chinese Culture University.)
Alba, J. W. and Hutchinson, J. W., 1987, “Dimensions of Consumer Expertise,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol.13, No. 4, 411-454.
Allport, G., 1954, The Nature of Prejudice, 1st, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley.
Anand, P. and Sternthal, B., 1990, “Ease of Message Processing as a Moderator of Repetition Effects in Advertising,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 27, 345-353.
Batra, R. and Ray, M. L., 1986, “Affective Responses Mediating Acceptance of Advertising,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 13, No. 2, 234-249.
Belch, G. E., 1982, “The Effects of Television Commercial Repetition on Cognitive Response and Message Acceptance,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 9, No. 1, 56-65.
Belk, R. W. and Llamas, R., 2013, The Routledge Companion to Digital Consumption, 1st, London: Routledge.
Berlyne, D. E., 1970, “Novelty, Complexity, and Hedonic Value,” Perception and Psychophysics, Vol. 8, No. 5, 279-286.
Browne, G. J., Pitts, M. G., and Wetherbe, J. C., 2007, “Cognitive Stopping Rules for Terminating Information Search in Online Tasks,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 1, 89-104.
Bryant, J. and Jones M., 2012, Pro HTML5 Performance: Responsive Web Design, 1st, California: Apress.
Bunnyfoot, 2013, “40% of Customers Don’t Know That Google Adwords Are Adverts,” https://bunnyfoot.com/2013/02/40-of-customers-dont-know-that-google-adwords-are-adverts/, accessed on October 11, 2017.
Cacioppo, J. T. and Petty, R. E., 1979, “Effects of Message Repetition and Position on Cognitive Response, Recall, and Persuasion,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 37, No. 1, 97-109.
Calder, B. J. and Sternthal, B., 1980, “Television Commercial Wearout: An Information Processing View,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 17, 173-186.
Chaiken, S., 1980, “Heuristic versus Systematic Information Processing and the Use of Source versus Message Cues in Persuasion,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 39, No. 5, 752-766.
Chaiken, S., Liberman, A., and Eagly, A. H., 1989, “Heuristics and Systematic Information Processing within and beyond the Persuasion Context,” in Uleman, J. S. and Bargh, J. A. (eds.), Unintended Thought: Limits of Awareness, Intention, and Control, First Edition, New York: Guilford Press, 212-252.
Chen, J., Yang, X., and Smith, R. E., 2016, “The Effects of Creativity on Advertising Wear-in and Wear-out,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 44, No. 3, 334-349.
Djamasbi, S., Hall-Phillips, A., and Yang, R., 2013, “SERPs and Ads on Mobile Devices: An Eye Tracking Study for Generation Y.,” Proceedings of International Conference on Universal Access in Human-Computer Interaction, Berlin, German.
Dong, X. and Li, H., 2018, “Does Online Media Sequence Matter in Product Marketing?,” Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, Vol. 28, 44-53.
Dou, W., Lim, K. H., Su, C., Zhou, N., and Cui, N., 2010, “Brand Positioning Strategy Using Search Engine Marketing,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 34, No. 2, 261-279.
Duff, B. R. L. and Faber, R. J., 2011, “Missing the Mark: Advertising Avoidance and Distractor Devaluation,” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 40, No. 2, 51-62.
Friestad, M. and Wright, P., 1994, “The Persuasion Knowledge Model: How People Cope with Persuasion Attempts,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 21, No. 1, 1-31.
Google Ads, 2018, “Keyword Planning Tool,” https://ads.google.com/home/tools/keyword-planner/, accessed on November 10, 2018.
Google Inside Adwords, 2015, “Building for the Next Moment,”
https://adwords.googleblog.com/2015/05/building-for-next-moment.html/, accessed on October 11, 2017.
Google Help Forum, 2017, “Search Using Autocomplete,” https://support.google.com/websearch/answer/106230?hl=en/, accessed on October 11, 2017.
Google Webmaster Center Blog, 2018, “Rolling Out Mobile-First Indexing,”
https://webmasters.googleblog.com/2018/03/rolling-out-mobile-first-indexing.html/, accessed on April 20, 2018.
Gorn, G. J. and Goldberg, M. E., 1982, “Behavioral Evidence of the Effects of Televised Food Messages on Children,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 9, No. 2, 200-205.
Hakala, U., Svensson, J., and Vincze Z., 2012, “Consumer-Based Brand Equity and Top-of-Mind Awareness A Cross-Country Analysis,” Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 21, No. 6, 439-451.
Haugtvedt, C. P., Petty, R. E., and Cacioppo, J. T., 1992, “Need for Cognition and Advertising: Understanding the Role of Personality Variables in Consumer Behavior,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 1, No. 3, 239-260.
Herr, P. M., 1989, “Priming Price: Prior Knowledge and Context Effects,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 16, No. 1, 67-75.
iProspect, 2006, “iProspect Search Engine User Behavior Study,” http://district4.extension.ifas.ufl.edu/Tech/TechPubs/WhitePaper_2006_SearchEngineUserBehavior.pdf, accessed on October 11, 2017.
Janiszewski, C., 1993, “Preattentive Mere Exposure Effects,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 20, No. 3, 376-392.
Jansen, B. J., Liu, Z., and Simon, Z., 2013, “The Effect of Ad Rank on the Performance of Keyword Advertising Campaigns,” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 64, No. 10, 2115-2132.
Jansen, B. J. and Schuster, S., 2011, “Bidding on the Buying Funnel for Sponsored Search Campaigns,” Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 12, No. 1, 1-18.
Jansen, B. J., Zhang, M., and Schultz, C. D., 2009, “Brand and Its Effect on User Perception of Search Engine Performance,” Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, Vol. 60, No. 8, 1572-1595.
Kaplan, M. F. and Miller, C. E., 1987, “Group Decision Making and Normative versus Informational Influence: Effects of Type of Issue and Assigned Decision Rule,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 53, No. 2, 306-313.
Kim, K. J. and Sundar, S. S., 2016, “Mobile Persuasion: Can Screen Size and Presentation Mode Make a Difference to Trust?,” Human Communication Research, Vol. 42, No. 1, 45-70.
Kirmani, A. and Zhu, R., 2007, “Vigilant Against Manipulation: The Effect of Regulatory Focus on the Use of Persuasion Knowledge,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 44, No. 4, 688-701.
Koch, P. P., 2010, “A Pixel is not a Pixel is not a Pixel,” https://www.quirksmode.org/blog/archives/2010/04/a_pixel_is_not.html/, accessed on October 11, 2017.
KWFinder, 2018, “Find Long Tail Keywords with Low SEO Difficulty,” https://kwfinder.com/, accessed on November 10, 2018.
Lang, A., 2000, “The Limited Capacity Model of Mediated Message Processing,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 50, No. 1, 46-70.
Lee, J., Ahn, J. H., and Park, B., 2015, “The Effect of Repetition in Internet Banner Ads and the Moderating Role of Animation,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 46, 202-209.
Levin, I. P. and Levin, A. M., 2000, “Modeling the Role of Brand Alliances in the Assimilation of Product Evaluations,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 9, No. 1, 43-52.
Liu, Z., Liu, Y., Zhou, K., Zhang, M., and Ma, S., 2015, “Influence of Vertical Result in Web Search Examination,” Proceedings of 38th ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval, Santiago, Chile, 193-202.
Lo, S. K., Hsieh, A. Y., and Chiu, Y. P., 2014, “Keyword Advertising is not What You Think: Clicking and Eye Movement Behaviors on Keyword Advertising,” Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, Vol. 13, No. 4, 221-228.
Ma, Z., Liu, X., and Hossain, T., 2013, “Effect of Sponsored Search on Consumer Trust and Choice,” International Journal of Electronic Business Management, Vol. 11, No. 4, 227-237.
Maltby, M., 2014, “How Leading Advertisers Are Using Search for Brand Building,” https://www.thinkwithgoogle.com/advertising-channels/search/how-advertisers-are-using-search-for-brand-building/, accessed on October 11, 2017.
Martí-Parreño, J., Bermejo-Berros, J., and Aldás-Manzano, J., 2017, “Product Placement in Video Games: The Effect of Brand Familiarity and Repetition on Consumers’ Memory,” Journal of Interactive Marketing, Vol. 38, 55-63.
Mitchell, A. A. and Dacin, P. A., 1996, “The Assessment of Alternative Measures of Consumer Expertise,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 23, No. 3, 219-239.
MOZ, 2018, “Keyword Search,” https://moz.com/beginners-guide-to-seo/keyword-research, accessed on November 10, 2018.
North, D., 2015, “Logitech and Razer Dominate the PC Gaming Mouse Market -- and e-Sports Fuels Growth,” https://venturebeat.com/2015/05/07/logitech-and-razer-dominate-the-pc-gaming-mouse-market-and-e-sports-fuels-growth/, accessed on October 11, 2017.
Pechmann, C. and Stewart, D. W., 1988, “Advertising Repetition: A Critical Review of Wearin and Wearout,” Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, Vol. 11, No. 1-2, 285-329.
Peracchio, L. A. and Tybout, A. M., 1996, “The Moderating Role of Prior Knowledge in Schema-Based Product Evaluation,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 23, No. 3, 177-192.
Petrescu, P., Ghita, M., and Loiz, D., 2014, “Google Organic CTR Study 2014,” https://www.advancedwebranking.com/google-ctr-study-2014.html/, accessed on September 15, 2017.
Pieters, R., Rosbergen, E., and Wedel, M., 1999, “Visual Attention to Repeated Print Advertising: A Test of Scanpath Theory,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 36, 424-438.
Regan, D. T. and Fazio, R., 1977, “On the Consistency between Attitudes and Behavior: Look to the Method of Attitude Formation,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 13, No. 1, 28-45.
Royo-Vela, M. and Black, M., 2018, “Drone Images versus Terrain Images in Advertisements: Images’ Verticality Effects and the Mediating Role of Mental Simulation on Attitude Towards the Advertisement,” Journal of Marketing Communications, Vol. 26, No. 1, 21-39.
Royo-Vela, M. and Meyer, F., 2016, “Exploring Wearout and Some Insights and Replies to Factors Affecting Irritation and Attitudes towards Mobile Advertising,” in De Pelsmacker, P. (ed.), Advertising in New Formats and Media, First Edition, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 211-241.
Sawyer, A. G., 1981, “Repetition and Cognitive Response and Persuasion,” in Petty, R. E., Ostrom, T. M., and Brock, T. C. (eds.), Cognitive Responses in Persuasion, First Edition, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 237-262.
Schumann, D. W., Petty, R. E., and Clemons, D. S., 1990, “Predicting the Effectiveness of Different Strategies of Advertising Variation: A Test of the Repetition-Variation Hypotheses,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 17, No. 2, 192-202.
Screensiz.es, 2016, “Screen Sizes,” http://screensiz.es/, accessed on October 11, 2017.
Sherif, M. and Hovland, C. I., 1961, Social Judgment: Assimilation and Contrast Effects in Communication and Attitude Change, 1st, New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press.
Simonin, B. L. and Ruth, J. A., 1998, “Is a Company Known by the Company It Keeps? Assessing the Spillover Effects of Brand Alliances on Consumer Brand Attitudes,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 35, No. 1, 30-42.
Think with Google, 2014, “Mobile First: An Interview with Dixons Retail,” https://www.thinkwithgoogle.com/intl/en-gb/advertising-channels/mobile/mobile-first-jeremy-fennell/, accessed on October 10, 2017.
Trumbo, C. W., 1999, “Heuristic-Systematic Information Processing and Risk Judgment,” Risk Analysis, Vol. 19, No. 3, 391-398.
Wänke, M., Bless, H., and Schwarz, N., 1998, “Context Effects in Product Line Extensions: Context Is Not Destiny,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 7, No. 4, 299-322.
Wirth, W., Böcking, T., Karnowski, V., and Pape, T. V., 2007, “Heuristic and Systematic Use of Search Engines,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, Vol. 12, No. 3, 778-800.
Wikipedia, 2017, “Device-Independent Pixel,”
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Device-independent_pixel/, accessed on October 11, 2017.
van Raaij, W. F., 1991, “The Formation and Use of Expectations in Consumer Decision Making,” in Robertson, T. S. and Kassarjian, H. H. (eds.), Handbook of Consumer Behavior, First Edition, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 401-418.
Yi, Y., 1993, “Contextual Priming Effects in Print Advertisements: The Moderating Role of Prior Knowledge,” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 22, No. 1, 1-10.
Yoo, C. Y., 2014, “Branding Potentials of Keyword Search Ads: The Effects of Ad Rankings on Brand Recognition and Evaluations,” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 43, No. 1, 85-99.
Zajonc, R. B., 1968, “Attitudinal Effects of Mere Exposure,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology Monograph Supplement, Vol. 9, No. 2, 1-27.