Department of Business Administration, National Taipei University; Department of Business Administration, National Taipei University
本研究以社會心理學理論為基礎，探討影響服務創新表現的「前置因素」與「干擾效果」。本研究實證發現：「創新態度」、「正向預期情緒」、「社會認同」、及「群體規範」會透過「創新意圖」進一步影響員工的創新表現。在干擾效果部分：「顧客導向」會抑制創新意圖轉換成為創新表現；此一結果隱含，顧客導向程度越高會導致員工過度聽從顧客意見或要求，甚至侷限創新資訊的來源。此外，「獎酬合宜性」對於意圖與創新表現之間的關係並無顯著干擾效果，此一結果可能是因為獎酬的雙元影響機制相互抵減效果所致 (積極肯定的訊息效果與監督控制的訊息效果)。本研究的結果，除了深化過去個人創新之學理之外，亦提供經理人若干管理實務之建議。(147_M5eeb03e594419_Abs.pdf(File does not exist))
Service employees’ innovative behavior is one of the important issues in recent years and has been recognized as a source of a company’s long-term competitive advantage. The main objective of this study is to investigate the formation of service employees’ innovation performance. Based on the theories from social psychology, this study investigates the antecedents, mediating mechanism, and moderating variables affecting service innovation processes. The proposed model is empirically tested with data collected from service employees. Our results indicate that attitude toward innovation, anticipated emotions, social identity, and group norm all significantly influence employees’ innovation performance through innovation intention. Regarding moderating factors, our results indicate that customer orientation negatively influences the conversion of innovation intentions into innovation performance. This implies that high customer orientation will drive employees to overly cater to customer opinions or expectations and may even limit their sources of innovation information. In such context, innovation intentions may not necessarily lead to innovation performance. The authors discuss implications for managers and avenues for further research.(147_M5eeb03e594419_Abs.pdf(File does not exist))
Customer Orientation, Positive Anticipated Emotion, Rewards, Service Innovation Performance, Social Identity
服務業係為台灣經濟活動之主體，亦為提升國民就業的核心產業。有鑒於服務業對經濟的關鍵影響，管理領域學者積極投入服務相關主題研究，近年來更聚焦於服務創新過程之探討。其中，服務人員的創新表現為服務領域的核心議題；此乃因為員工在服務過程中的創新行為，不僅能夠為顧客創造服務價值，同時也能促進組織績效提升及維持企業長期競爭優勢。本研究透過相關文獻回顧，深入探究員工服務創新表現之前置因素及干擾機制。整體而言，本研究發現提升員工創新表現可從兩個層面來探討：「個人心理層面影響因素 (Psychological Influence-Based Factors)」及「社會層面影響因素 (Social Influence-Based Factors)」。「個人心理層面影響因素」包含「基於過去經驗的創新態度」以及「基於未來情境的預期情緒」；「社會層面影響因素」包含「認同感」及「群體創新規範」；換言之，經理人擬提升服務人員之服務創新表現，可以透過創新態度及正向預期情緒的提升；另外一方面，經理人也可以透過認同感的深化及群體創新規範的建立來促進員工創新表現。在干擾因素部分，本研究發現：「顧客導向」會抑制創新意圖轉換成為創新表現；換言之，顧客導向程度越高會導致員工過度跟隨顧客意見，進而限縮服務員工創新資訊來源，減損其創新服務發想，導致員工雖有創新意圖卻不一定會有創新表現。本研究建議經理人：當顧客導向應用於服務創新領域時，應著重在「主動型的顧客導向」而非「反應型的顧客導向」；具體而言，員工應先主動瞭解顧客基本想法或需求，進而加入外部 (顧客以外) 所獲得的創新元素來設計服務，而非僅侷限在顧客一己之意見。此外，本研究也發現到：「獎酬合宜性」對於意圖與創新表現之間的關係並無顯著干擾效果；此一結果可能肇因於獎酬機制對創新過程的雙元影響(資訊影響及控制影響)，進而相互抵消其促進效果，此一發現對於服務業經理人在經營管理實務上有重要的意涵。
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