Sun Yat-Sen Management Review

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Title
精準分眾以創新:由使用者行為引導媒體服務設計
Innovation by Precision Targeting: Navigating Media Service Design by means of User Behavior
(142_M5c91b3ed3154b_Full.pdf 9,666KB)

Author
歐素華/東吳大學商學院企業管理學系
Su-Hua Ou/

Department of Business Administration, Soochow University


Abstract(Chinese)

創新產品服務是否契合使用者需求,成為企業能否持續成長關鍵。不過為何許多企業導入設計思考或線上論壇,還是無法打動人心?使用者創新建議讓領先使用者創新或傾聽使用者聲音。但企業不易找到領先使用者,一般使用者又經常說一套作一套,以致創新淪為傷心。本文調查新聞媒體公司如何投入分眾調查以創新,主要有三點貢獻。一是精準分眾。分眾是具有連結力、專業度與推銷能力的早期採納者,可及性高且影響力廣。二是使用經驗。分析分眾使用經驗,更能精準聚焦核心需求。三是設計原則,由需求到創新之推理邏輯,可引導跨部門協作,忠實傳達使用者需求。就實務貢獻,本研究提出由分眾引導產品服務設計、跨眾傳播與經營變革。分眾,因精準分辨而得眾。

(142_M5c91b3ed3154b_Abs.pdf(File does not exist))

KeyWord(Chinese)

分眾需求、以使用者為中心、設計原則、人物誌、社會建構


Abstract(English)

Innovating products and services to meet users’ unsatisfied need has become top priority for corporates’ growth. However, as most enterprises engaged in design thinking, focus group, or online community, their innovation still cannot meet users’ requirement. User-centric innovation literature describes various tools to learn from users while user innovation highlights the importance of lead users, however, enterprises found it is not easy to get access to lead users or learn from target audience. This article examines how a newspaper company innovates products and services from the design principles, extracting from its core audience using experience. There are three main theoretical contributions. First of all, this paper emphasizes the early adopters as the main target audience. Comparing with lead user or user community, early adopters are more accessible, have some specific domain knowledge, and are influential to other users. The more precise description of the early adopters, the more clear of their pain points. Secondly, this paper inspires enterprises to learn from users’ experience. Users’ sense making for products and services provides important reference points for innovation. Comparison in users’ mind instead of producers’ mind can help enterprises shorten learning curves and avoid ineffective designs. Thirdly, this paper highlights the importance of design principles. By turning users’ pain points into design principles, producers can have reasonable design instead of over design or insufficient services. Practically, this article suggests media companies to learn from the early adopters by having precise personas, analyzing users’ experience, and coming up with dedicated design principles.

(142_M5c91b3ed3154b_Abs.pdf(File does not exist))

KeyWord(English)

Early Adopters, User-centric Innovation, Design Principles, Persona, Social Construction


Policy and management implications
(Available only in Chinese)

與時俱進滿足使用者需求,是推升企業持續成長關鍵。以使用者為中心論述強調傾聽使用者的聲音,使用者創新文獻則建議尋找領先使用者幫忙創新。但是一般使用者經常說一套做一套,領先使用者又不容易尋找。本研究提出分眾的重要性,並以捷運報為案例,探討捷運報如何以人物誌的設計實務,有效掌握「慕文青」分眾需求,進而提出媒體創新內容與延伸服務設計。 本文指出,分眾乃是介於大眾與小眾之間的早期採納者,具有連結者、專家、推銷員特質,具一定領域知識且擴散影響力強。由分眾使用經驗提煉設計原則,可以有效聚焦分眾核心需求,引導跨領域協作,進而提出合理且有用的服務設計。總結來說,精準分眾而非一般大眾或領先小眾,使用經驗而非空泛意見,設計邏輯而非概論原則,是本研究對使用者創新文獻之重要貢獻。此外,本研究也由精準分眾、使用經驗與設計原則,提出人物誌設計的三個重要場域,分眾生活場域(personality)、情緒場域(pain points)、以及設計場域(principles),進而有劇照、劇情、與劇本設計之特殊價值,實為人物誌(persona)之重要內涵。 就管理實務言,面對善變的使用者,企業必須與時俱進掌握核心分眾需求,由單一分眾推導設計原則,以創新核心產品與延伸服務;進而規劃由單一分眾到多分眾的創新推廣機制;最後可由分眾引導企業經營模式變革。分眾看似侷限於特定使用族群,但從創新擴散機制思考,卻能發現具有影響力的分眾,往往可以發揮自主傳播的社群擴散效應。掌握特定分眾需求,足以創造以小搏大的槓桿效應。 最後本文也提醒,企業必須思考如何由分眾重新設計經營模式。創新產品服務以契合特定分眾需求,雖可獲得短期收益,但從長期來看,改變過去以生產者為中心的研發思維,轉為以分眾為中心的經營邏輯,需要根本改變企業的價值創造與擷取機制,包括企業的組織文化與結構設計。本文探討的雖然是媒體產業,但精準分眾、使用經驗、與設計原則,卻是所有企業邁向分眾時代的重要實務。


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