中山管理評論

  期刊全文閱覽

中山管理評論  2018/9

第26卷第3期  p.479-510

DOI:DOI: 10.6160/SYSMR.201809_26(3).0004


題目
社群商務網站上之自我揭露行為:以Fashion Guide時尚美妝傳媒為例
Self-disclosure Behaviors in Social Commerce Websites: An Empirical Validation of Fashion Guide
(140_M5ba4a13dc7b26_Full.pdf 889KB)

作者
李家瑩、戴婉如/國立臺中科技大學企業管理系、國立臺中科技大學企業管理系
Chia-Ying Li, Wan-Ju Tai/

Department of Business Administration, National Taichung University of Science and Technology; Department of Business Administration, National Taichung University of Science and Technology


摘要(中文)

社交媒介的蓬勃發展,消費者的購買行為隨之改變。過去自我揭露相關研究大多研究著重自我揭露對於使用者自身的影響,較少探討自我揭露對網路平台所產生的影響。因此,本研究以社群商務網站「Fashion Guide時尚美妝傳媒」之使用者為標的,從揭露決策模型的觀點探討個人面的社會臨場感,及情境面的網路特性,包含:網路強度及網路中心性,對自我揭露程度的影響,並進一步探討自我揭露對於平台產生的承諾。透過問卷調查,本研究總共蒐集303份有效問卷,結果顯示社會臨場感、網路中心性及網路強度會正向影響自我揭露深度;社會臨場感及網路強度會正向影響自我揭露廣度;自我揭露深度及廣度會強化使用者虛擬社群意識,並進而提升對於平台的承諾。

(140_M5ba4a13dc7b26_Abs.pdf(檔案不存在))

關鍵字(中文)

自我揭露、社會臨場感、網路特性、虛擬社群意識、對平台的承諾


摘要(英文)

Previous studies discuss the antecedents of self-disclosure mainly on the basis of personal benefits or interpersonal relationships, but few studies focus on network situations or personal differences. In addition, previous studies mostly shed lights on the impacts of self-disclosure on the users, rather than on online retailers. Based on the Disclosure Decision Model, this study investigates the influences of social presence (situational perspective), and the influences of network characteristics (personal perspective) on self-disclosure, which will further impact continuance commitment toward online retailers. Questionnaire survey was used to collect data from 303 respondents who have ever used Fashion Guide website. The findings show that social presence, network centrality, and network strength have positive influence on depth of self-disclosure, whereas social presence and network strength positively impact breadth of self-disclosure. Both depth and breadth of self-disclosure influence sense of community, which will further have impacts on commitment toward online retailers. The findings would provide suggestions and recommendations for online retailers to enhance users’ disclosure behaviors in social commerce Websites.

(140_M5ba4a13dc7b26_Abs.pdf(檔案不存在))

關鍵字(英文)

Self-disclosure, Social Presence, Network Characteristics, Sense of Community, Commitment


領域
Information and Technology Management

政策與管理意涵

隨著社交媒介的蓬勃發展,像是:Facebook、Twitter及Line,消費者的購買行為也隨之改變,消費者在購買不熟悉或是高單價的商品之前,會透過網路平台來尋求更多資訊,以降低決策風險,或是在網路社群中進行合購或是購物,因而形成了社群商務。社群商務被視為電子商務的其中一種類型,合併了社群網站及電子商務,亦即透過社交媒介,使用者可以參與商品或服務的購買及銷售。相較於傳統的推薦機制或是線上評論,訊息來源可能是業者行銷策略下所創造出的產物,社群網路成員彼此之間往往具有直接或是間接的脈絡關係,成員之間所提供的意見具有較高的可信程度,因此導致線上社群不斷蓬勃發展。因此,業者可以藉由使用者自我揭露行為,了解使用者對於產品的評價及需求,或是透過使用者關於產品使用的自我揭露來進行口碑行銷,免費宣傳商品,有助於掌握商機並創造利潤。本研究歸納以下三點實務建議,以作為業者經營社群媒體時之參考。第一點、社群商務平台中,若是能夠讓使用者充分感受到社群商務網站所提供豐富資訊,有機會與他人互動性溝通時,有助於提升使用者自我揭露的深度與廣度,因此建議廠商可以透過建構具有高度臨場感的社群網站,讓使用者可以在社群商務網站上討論商品;第二點、在網路中與他人連結程度高及位處於網路中心位置的使用者,會因為其在網路結構中所處的極佳位置或是扮演重要角色,而積極與他人進行互動與交流,因此廠商應當要觀察與尋找這些重要的關鍵人物,當商品能夠取信於這些關鍵成員時,能夠透過自然而然的互動,降低其他成員對於產品可能知覺的風險;第三點、使用者會因為自我揭露,因而對於互動的社群產生歸屬感及情感連結,並且潛移默化地對於廠商產生承諾,有助於未來的產品銷售,因此廠商應當致力於社群商務平台經營,以提升自我揭露訊息的品質與數量。


參考文獻

Altman, I. and Taylor, D. A., 1973, Social Penetration: The Development of Interpersonal Relationship, 1st, New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Andrade, E. B., Kaltcheva, V. and Weitz, B., 2002, “Self-disclosure on the Web: the Impact of Privacy Policy, Reward, and Company Reputation,” Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 29, 350-353.
Bagozzi, R. P. and Dholakia, U. M., 2002, “Intentional Social Action in Virtual Communities,” Journal of Interactive Marketing, Vol. 16, 2-21.
Bahk, C. M., Sheil, A., Rohm, C. E. T., and Lin, F., 2010, “Digital Media Dependency, Relational Orientation and Social Networking among College Students,” Communications of the IIMA, Vol. 10, No. 3, 69-78.
Bai, Y., Yao, Z., and Dou, Y. F., 2015, “Effect of Social Commerce Factors on User Purchase Behavior: An Empirical Investigation from renren.com. International,” Journal of Information Management, Vol. 35, 538-550.
Barak, A. and Gluck-Ofri, O., 2007, “Degree and Reciprocity of Self-Disclosure in Online Forums,” CyberPsychology and Behavior, Vol. 10, No. 3, 407-417.
Barnes, J. A., 1954, “Class and Committees in a Norwegian Island Parish,” Human Relations, Vol. 7, No. 1, 39-58.
Bateman, P. J., Pike, J, C., and Butler, B. C., 2011, “To Disclosure or Not: Publicness in Social Networking Sites,” Information Technology and People, Vol. 24, No. 1, 78-100.
Beck, R., Pahlke, I., and Seebach, C., 2014, “Knowledge Exchange and Symbolic Action in Social Media-enabled Electronic Networks of Practice: A Multilevel Perspective on Knowledge Seekers and Contributors,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 38, No. 4, 1245-1270.
Biocca, F., Harms, C., and Burgoon, J. K., 2003, “Towards a More Robust Theory and Measure of Social Presence: Review and Suggested Criteria,” Presence, Vol. 12, No. 5, 456-480.
Borgatti, S. P., Everett, M. G., and Freeman, L. C., 2002, Ucinet for Windows: Software for social network analysis, 1st, Harvard, MA: Analytic Technologies.
Bazarova, N. N. and Choi, Y. H., 2014. “Self-disclosure in Social Media: Extending the Functional Approach to Disclosure Motivations and Characteristics on Social Network Sites,” Journal of Communication, Vol. 64, No. 4, 635-657.
Bunker, M. P., 2014, “The Essential Role of Sense of Community in a High Customer-to-customer Interaction Service Setting,” Journal of Marketing Development and Competitiveness, Vol. 8, No. 3, 95-106.
Brown, J. J. and Reingen, P. H., 1987, “Social Ties and Word-of-mouth Referral Behavior,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 14, No. 3, 350-362.
Carlson, B., Suter, T., and Brown, T., 2008, “Social Versus Psychological Brand Community: the Role of Psychological Sense of Brand Community,” Journal of Business Research, Vol. 61, No. 4, 284-91.
Casaló, L., Flavián, C., and Guinalíu, M., 2007, “The Impact of Participation in Virtual Brand Communities on Consumer Trust and Loyalty: The Case of Free Software,” Online Information Review, Vol. 31, No. 6, 775-792.
Chelune, G. J., 1979, Self-disclosure: Origins, Patterns, and Implications of Openness in Interpersonal Relationships, 1st, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Chen, E., Hanson, M. D., Paterson, L. Q., Griffin, M. J., Walker, H. A., and Miller, G. E., 2006, “Socioeconomic Status and Inflammatory Processes in Childhood Asthma: The Role of Psychological Stress,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, Vol. 117, 1014-1020.
Chen, R., 2013, “Living a Private Life in Public Social Networks: An Exploration of Member Self-disclosure,” Decision Support Systems, Vol. 55, No. 3, 661-668.
Chen, R. and Sharma, S. K., 2015, “Learning and Self-disclosure Behavior on Social Networking Sites: The Case of Facebook Users,” European Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 24, No. 1, 93-106.
Chen, Y. H., Wu, J. J., and Chung, Y. S., 2008, “Cultural Impact on Trust: A Comparison of Virtual Communities in China, Hong Kong, and Taiwan,” Journal of Global Information Technology Management, Vol. 11, No. 1, 28-48.
Chin, W. W., 1998, “Issues and Opinion on Structural Equation Modeling,” Management Information Systems Quarterly, Vol. 22, 7-16.
Choi, Y. K., Yoon, S., and Lacey, H. P., 2013, “Online Game Characters’ Influence on Brand Trust: Self-disclosure, Group Membership, and Product Type,” Journal of Business Research, Vol. 66, No. 8, 996-1003.
Collins, N. L. and Miller, L. C., 1994, “Self-disclosure and Liking: A Meta-analytic Review,” Psychological Bulletin, Vol. 116, 457-475.
Cross, R., Borgatti, S. P., and Parker, A., 2001, “Beyond Answers: Dimensions of the Advice Network,” Social Networks, Vol. 23, No. 3, 215-235.
D'Aprile, G. and Talò, C., 2015, “How Corporate Social Responsibility Influences Organizational Commitment: A Psychosocial Process Mediated by Organizational Sense of Community,” Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, Vol. 27, No. 4, 241-269.
Derlega, V. J. and Margulis, S. T., 1983, “Loneliness and Intimate Communication,” in Perlman, D. and Cozby, P. C. (eds.), Social psychology, 1st, New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 208-226.
Fornell, C. and Larcker, D. F., 1981, “Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18, No. 1, 39-50.
Freeman, L. C., 1979, “Centrality in Social Networks: Conceptual Clarification,” Social Network, Vol. 1, 215-239.
Gefen, D. and Straub, D., 2003, “Managing User Trust in B2C E-services,” E-Service Journal, Vol. 2, No. 2, 7-24.
Gibbs, J. L., Ellison, N. B., and Heino, R. D., 2006, “Self-Presentation in Online Personals: The Role of Anticipated Future Interaction, Self-disclosure, and Perceived Success in Internet Dating,” Communication Research, Vol. 33, No. 2, 152-177.
Granovetter, M., 1973, “The Strength of Weak Ties,” American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 78, No. 6, 1360-1380.
Gunawardena, C. N. and Zittle, F. J., 1997, “Social Presence as a Predictor of Satisfaction within a Computer-mediated Conferencing Environment,” American Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 11, No. 3, 8-26.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E. and Tatham, R. L., 2006, Multivariate Data Analysis, 6th, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., and Sarstedt, M., 2011, “PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet,” Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol. 19, No. 2, 139-152.
Hajli, N., 2015, “Social Commerce Constructs and Consumer's Intention to Buy,” International Journal of Information Management, Vol. 35, 183-191.
Hassanein, K. and Head, M., 2007, “Manipulating Perceived Social Presence through the Web Interface and Its Impact on Attitude towards Online Shopping,” International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, Vol. 65, No. 8, 689-708.
Huang, Z. and Benyoucef, M., 2013, “From E-commerce to Social Commerce: A Close Look at Design Features,” Electronic Commerce Research & Applications, Vol. 12, No. 4, 246-259.
Hsiao, C. C. and Chiou, J. S., 2012a, “The Effect of Social Capital on Community Loyalty in a Virtual Community: Test of a Tripartite-process Model,” Decision Support Systems, Vol. 54, No. 1, 750-757.
Hsiao, C. C. and Chiou, J. S., 2012b, “The Impact of Online Community Position on Online Game Continuance Intention: Do Game Knowledge and Community Size Matter?,” Information & Management, Vol. 49, No. 6, 292-300.
Hsu, C. L. and Liao, Y. C., 2014, “Exploring the Linkages between Perceived Information Accessibility and Microblog Stickiness: The Moderating Role of a Sense of Community,” Information & Management, Vol. 51, No. 7, 833-844.
Irwin, A. and Taylor, A. D., 1973, Social Penetration: The Development of Interpersonal Relationships, 1st, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston.
Jacobs, R. S., Hyman, M. R., and McQuitty, S., 2001, “Exchange-specific Self-disclosure, Social Self-disclosure, and Personal Selling,” Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol. 9, No. 1, 48-62.
Joinson, A. N., Reips, U. D., Buchanan, T., and Schofield, C. B. P., 2010, “Privacy, Trust, and Self-disclosure Online,” Human-computer Interaction, Vol. 25, No. 1, 1-24.
Jourard, S. M. and Lasakow, P., 1958, “Some Factors in Self-disclosure,” Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, Vol. 56, No. 1, 91-98.
Kang, J. Y. M. and Johnson, K. K. P., 2013, “How Does Social Commerce Work for Apparel Shopping? Apparel Social E-shopping with Social Network Storefronts,“ Journal of Customer Behavior, Vol. 12, No. 1, 53-72.
Kang, Y., Park, J., and Liu, J., 2012, “A Study on the Online Shopper’s Self-disclosure,” Academy of Marketing Studies Journal, Vol. 16, No. 1, 19-38.
Kilduff, M. and Tsai, W., 2003, Social Networks and Organizations, London: Sage.
Kim, H., Suh, K. S., and Lee, U. K., 2013, “Effects of Collaborative Online Shopping on Shopping Experience Through Social and Relational Perspectives,” Information & Management, Vol. 50, No. 4, 169-180.
Kim, J., Klautke, H. A., and Serota, K. B., 2009, “Effects of Relational Motivation and Age on Online Self-disclosure: A Content Analysis of MySpace Profile Pages,” Proceedings of the International Communication Association Conference, Communication and Technology Division, Chicago, IL.
Ko, H. C., 2013, “The Determinants of Continuous Use of Social Networking Sites: An Empirical Study on Taiwanese Journal-type Blogger’s Continuous Self-disclosure Behavior,” Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, Vol. 12, 103-111.
Koh, J. and Kim, Y. G., 2003, “Sense of Virtual Community: A Conceptual Framework and Empirical Validation,” International Journal of Electronic Commerce, Vol. 8, No. 2, 75-93.
Krackhardt, D., 1992, The Strength of Strong Ties: The Importance of Philos in Organizations’, in Nohria, N., & Eccles, R. G. (Ed.), Network and organizations, Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 216-239.
Krasnova, H., Spiekermann, S., Koroleva, K., and Hildebrand, T., 2010, “Online Social Networks: Why We Disclose,” Journal of Information Technology, Vol. 25, 109-125.
Kumar, N. and Benbasat, I., 2002, “Para-social Presence and Communication Capabilities of a Web Site: a Theoretical Perspective,” E-service Journal, Vol. 1, No. 3, 5-24.
Lampe, C., Ellison, N., and Steinfield, C., 2007, A Familiar Face(Book): Profile Elements as Signals in an Online Social Network, Proceedings of SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New York: ACM, 435-444.
Lassar, W. M. and Dandapani, K., 2003, “Media Perceptions and Their Impact on Web Site Quality,” International Journal of Bank Marketing, Vol. 21, No. 1, 38-47.
Ledbetter, A. M., Mazer, J. P., DeGroot, J. M., Meyer, K. R., Mao, Y., and Swafford, B., 2011, “Attitudes Toward Online Social Connection and Self-Disclosure as Predictors of Facebook Communication and Relational Closeness,” Communication Research, Vol. 38, No. 1, 27-53.
Lee, D. H., Im, S., and Taylor, C. R., 2008, “Voluntary Self‐disclosure of Information on the Internet: A Multi-method Study of the Motivations and Consequences of Disclosing Information on Blogs,” Psychology & Marketing, Vol. 25, No. 7, 692-710.
Lee, J. and Kim, S., 2010, “Exploring the Role of Social Networks in Affective Organizational Commitment: Network Centrality, Strength of Ties, and Structural Holes,” The American Review of Public Administration, Vol. 41, No. 2, 205-223.
Li, H., Daugherty, T., and Biocca, F., 2001, “Characteristics of Virtual Experience in Electronic Commerce: A Protocol Analysis,” Journal of Interactive Marketing, Vol. 15, No. 3, 13-30.
Liang, H., Saraf, N., Hu, Q., and Xue, Y., 2007, “Assimilation of Enterprise Systems: The Effect of Institutional Pressures and the Mediating Role of Top Management,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 1, 59-87.
Liu, Z., Min, Q., Zhai, Q., and Smyth, R., 2016, “Self-disclosure in Chinese Micro-blogging: A Social Exchange Theory Perspective,” Information & Management, Vol. 53, No. 1, 53-63.
Long, A. D. and Perkins, D. D., 2003, “Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Sense of Community Index and Development of a Brief SCI,” Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 31, 279-296.
Lowry, P. B., Vance, A., Moody, G., Beckman, B., and Read, A., 2008, Explaining and Predicting the Impact of Branding Alliances and Web Site Quality on Initial Consumer Trust of E-commerce Web Sites, Journal of Management Information Systems, Vol. 24, No. 4, 199-224.
Lyons, K. and Dionigi, R., 2007, “Transcending Emotional Community: A Qualitative Examination of Older Adults and Masters’ Sports Participation,” Leisure Sciences, Vol. 29, No. 4, 375-389.
Mckenna, K. Y. and Bargh, J., 2000, “Plan 9 from Cyberspace: The Implication of the Internet for Personality and Social Psychology,” Personality and Social Psychology Review, Vol. 4, 57-75.
McKenna, K. Y. A., Green, A. S., and Gleason, M. E. J., 2002, “Relationship Formation on the Internet: What’s the Big Attraction?” Journal of Social Issues, Vol. 58, 9-31.
McMillan, D. W. and Chavis, D. M., 1986, “Sense of Community: A Definition and Theory,” Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 14, No. 1, 6-23.
Mennecke, B. E., Triplett, J., Hassall, L. M., Jordan, Z., and Heer, R., 2011, “An Examination of the Development of Embodied Social Presence During Team Interaction and Collaboration in Virtual Worlds,” Decision Sciences, Vol. 42, No. 2, 413-450.
Morgan, R. M. and Hunt, S. D., 1994, “The Commitment-trust Theory of Relationship Marketing,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58, No. 3, 20-38.
Omarzu, J., 2000, “A Disclosure Decision Model: Determining How and When Individuals Will Self-disclosure,” Personality and Social Psychology Review, Vol. 4, No. 2, 174-185.
Park, H. and Cameron, G. T., 2014, “Keeping It Real: Exploring the Roles of Conversational Human Voice and Source Credibility in Crisis Communication via Blogs,” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, Vol. 91, No. 3, 487-507.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., and Podsakoff, N. P., 2003, “Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 88, No. 5, 879-903.
Posey, C., Lowry, P. B., Roberts, T. L., and Ellis, T. S., 2010, “Proposing the Online Community Self-disclosure Model: The Case of Working Professionals in France and the U.K. Who Use Online Communities,” European Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 19, 181-195.
Ren, Y., Harper, F. M., Drenner, S., Terveen, L. G., Kiesler, S. B., Riedl, J., and Kraut, R. E., 2012, “Building Member Attachment in Online Communities: Applying Theories of Group Identity and Interpersonal Bonds,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 36, No. 3, 841-864.
Reno, R. R. and Kenny, D. A., 1992, “Effects of Self-consciousness and Social Anxiety on Self-Disclosure Among Unacquainted Individuals: An Application of the Social Relations Model,” Journal of Personality, Vol. 60, 79-94.
Rettie, R., 2003, “An Exploration of Flow During Internet Use,” Internet Research, Vol. 11, No.2, 103-113.
Rogers, E. M., 2003, Diffusion of Innovations, 5th, New York: Free Press.
Sarason, S. B., 1974, The Psychological Sense of Community: Prospects for a Community Psychology, 1st, San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Scott, J., 1991, Social Network Analysis: A Handbook. Newbury Park, 1st, CA: Sage.
Shen, J., 2012, “Social Comparison, Social Presence, and Enjoyment in the Acceptance of Social Shopping Websites,” Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 13, No. 3, 198-212.
Shih, H. P. and Huang, E., 2014, “Influences of Web Interactivity and Social Identity and Bonds on the Quality of Online Discussion in a Virtual Community,” Information Systems Frontiers, Vol. 16, No.4, 627-641.
Short, J., Williams, E., and Christie, B., 1976, Theoretical Approaches to Differences between Media, the Social Psychology of Telecommunication, 1st, New York: Wiley.
Simon, S. J., 2001, “The Impact of Culture and Gender on Web Sites: An Empirical Study,” Data Base for Advances in Information Systems, Vol. 32, No.1, 18-37.
Sprecher, S., Treger, S., Wondra, J. D., Hilaire, N., and Wallpe, K., 2013, “Taking Turns: Reciprocal Self-disclosure Promotes Liking in Initial Interactions.” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Vol. 49, 860-866.
Sproull, L. and Kiesler, S., 1991, “Computers, Networks and Work. Scientific American,” Vol. 265, No. 3, 116-123.
Sawalha, N., Zaitouni, M., and ElSharif, A., 2012, “Corporate Culture Dimensions Associated with Organizational Commitment: An Empirical Study,” Journal of Applied Business Research, Vol. 28, No. 5, 957-976.
Talò, C., Mannarini, T., and Rochira, A., 2014, “Sense of Community and Community Participation: A Meta-analytic Review,” Social Indicators Research, Vol. 117, No. 1, 1-28.
Teri, Q. and Connie, S., 2002, “Academic Self-disclosure in Adolescence,” Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, Vol. 128, No. 1, 47-75.
Tian, Q., 2013, “Social Anxiety, Motivation, Self-disclosure, and Computer-mediated Friendship: A Path Analysis of the Social Interaction in the Blogosphere,” Communication Research, Vol. 40, No. 2, 237-260.
Trepte, S. and Reinecke, L., 2013, “The Reciprocal Effects of Social Network Site Use and the Disposition for Self-Disclosure: A Longitudinal Study,” Computers in Human Behavior, Vol. 29, 1102-1112.
Tsai, M. T., Cheng, N. C., and Chen, K. S., 2011, “Understanding Online Group Buying Intention: The Roles of Sense of Virtual Community and Technology Acceptance Factors,” Total Quality Management & Business Excellence, Vol. 22, No. 10, 1091-1004.
Tsai, W. and Ghoshal, S., 1998, “Social capital and value creation: The Role of Intrafirm Networks,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 41, No. 4, 464-476.
Tu, C. H. and McIsaac, M., 2002, “The Relationship of Social Presence and Interaction in Online Classes,” The American Journal of Distance Education, Vol. 16, No. 3, 131-150.
Vasudevan, H., Gaur, S. S., and Shinde, R. K., 2006, “Relational Switching Costs, Satisfaction and Commitment: A Study in the Indian Manufacturing Context,” Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, Vol. 18, No. 4, 342-353.
Wakefield, R., 2013, “The Influence of User Affect in Online Information Disclosure,” The Journal of Strategic Information Systems, Vol. 22, No. 2, 157-174.
Wang, F., Camacho, E., and Xu, K., 2009, Positive Influence Dominating Set in Online Social Networks, Proceedings of Combinatorial Optimization and Applications, Berlin: Springer, 313-321.
Wasserman, S. and Galaskiewicz, J., 1994, Advances in Social Network Analysis, 1st, Thousand Oask, CA: Sage.
Wei, X., Yang, J., Adamic, L. A., de Araújo, R. M., and Rekhi, M., 2010, Diffusion Dynamics of Games on Online Social Networks, Proceedings of the 3rd conference on Online social networks, 2-2.
Wheeless, L. W., Nesser, K., and McCroskey, J. C., 1986, “The Relationships of Self-Disclosure and Disclosiveness to High and Low Communication Apprehension,” Communication Research Reports, Vol. 3, 129-134.
Wright, K., Craig, E., Cunningham, C., Igiel, M., and Ploeger, N., 2008, “Will You (still) Be My Friend?: Computer-mediated Relational Maintenance on Facebook.com,” Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the National Communication Association, San Diego, CA.
Xu, F., Michael, K., and Chen, X., 2013, “Factors Affecting Privacy Disclosure on Social Network Sites: An Integrated Model,” Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 13, No. 2, 151-168.
Yetim, N. and Yetim, Ü., 2014, “Sense of Community and Individual Well-being: A Research on Fulfillment of Needs and Social Capital in the Turkish Community,” Social Indicators Research, Vol. 115, No. 1, 93-115.
Yoon, S. J., 2012, “A Social Network Approach the Influences of Shopping Experiences on E-wom,” Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, Vol. 13, No. 3, 213-223.
Zhang, H., Lu, Y., Gupta, S., and Zhao, L., 2014, “What Motivates Customers to Participate in Social Commerce? The Impact of Technological Environments and Virtual Customer Experiences,” Information & Management, Vol. 51, No. 8, 1017-1030.
Zhang, J., Pantula, S. G., and Boos, D. D., 1991, “Robust Methods for Testing the Pattern of A Single Covariance Matrix.” Biometrika, Vol. 78, No. 4, 787-795.
Zhang, Z. J., 2010, “Feeling the Sense of Community in Social Networking Usage,” IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, Vol. 57, No. 2, 225-239.