Department of Business Administration, National Taichung University of Science and Technology; Department of Business Administration, National Taichung University of Science and Technology
隨著消費市場的蓬勃發展，廠商提供多元的商品讓消費者進行選擇，如何在眾多商品中獲得消費者的青睞，成為廠商執行品牌策略時的關鍵議題。過去相關研究大多著重於消費者對於品牌的態度及認知，較少探討消費者與品牌之間的依附關係，甚至是依附母品牌對於子品牌延伸評價之影響。本研究以7-ELEVEN及7-SELECT為研究標的，從自我一致性理論的角度出發，探討消費者與母品牌之間的依附關係，並將知覺契合度對於母品牌依附與子品牌延伸評價之間關係的干擾效果納入考量。本研究以問卷調查的方式進行，總共蒐集367份有效樣本，並採用PLS分析方法驗證研究架構。實證結果顯示理想自我一致性會正向影響功能上的一致性；此外，真實自我一致性及功能上的一致性會正向影響母品牌依附，接著，母品牌依附會進一步正向影響子品牌延伸評價。再者，知覺契合度會干擾母品牌依附與子品牌延伸評價之間的關係。最後，本研究提出結論與管理意涵，以作為業者執行品牌策略時之參考。(139_M5b2c538e882c8_Abs.pdf(File does not exist))
With the fierce competition in the marketplace, firms provide a variety of products for consumers to choose. How to attract consumers’ attention has become a key issue for firms while implementing brand strategies. Most previous studies focused on consumers’ perceptions and attitudes toward the brand, rather than the relationship between brands and consumers, or the influence of parent brand attachment on sub-brand extension. By using 7-ELEVEN and 7-SELECT as research context and the self-congruity theory as the research foundation, this study explored the antecedents of brand attachment, which may further influence consumers’ brand extension evaluation. In addition, this study also explored the moderating effect of perceived fit on the relationship between brand attachment and brand extension evaluation. Questionnaire survey was used to validate research framework. By using PLS analysis with 367 usable questionnaires, the results indicated that ideal self-congruity has positive influences on functional congruity. Besides, actual self-congruity and functional congruity had positive impacts on parent brand attachment, which further influenced brand extension evaluation. Moreover, perceived fit would strengthen the positive influence of parent brand attachment on brand extension evaluation. Finally, this study proposed suggestions and managerial implications for firms to exercise their brand strategies.(139_M5b2c538e882c8_Abs.pdf(File does not exist))
Brand Attachment, Self-congruity Theory, Brand Extension Evaluation, Perceived Fit
台灣經濟研究院，2014，「台經院產經資料庫」，http://tie.tier.org.tw/, accessed on April 20, 2016. (Taiwan Institute of Economic Research, 2014, “Database of Taiwan Institute of Economic Research,” http://tie.tier.org.tw/, accessed on April 20, 2016.)
Aaker, D. A. and Keller, K. L., 1990, “Consumer Evaluation of Brand Extensions,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 54, 24-71.
Aaker, D. A., 1996, “Measuring Brand Equity across Products and Markets,” California Management Review, Vol. 38, No. 3, 102-120.
Aaker, J. L., 1997, “Dimensions of Brand Personality,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 34, No. 3, 347-356.
Aaker, J. L., 1999, “The Malleable Self: The Role of Self-Expression in Persuasion,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 36, No. 1, 45-57.
Aaker, J., Fournier, S., and Brasel, S. A., 2004, “When Good Brands Do Bad,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1-16.
Aiken, L. S. and West, S. G. 1991, Multiple Regression: Testing and Interpreting Interactions, 1st, Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Ainsworth, M. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., and Wall, S., 1978, Patterns of Attachment: A Psychological Study of the Strange Situation, 1st, Oxford, UK: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Armstrong, J. S. and Overton, T. S., 1977, “Estimating Nonresponse Bias in Mail Surveys,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 14, No. 7, 396-402.
Assael, H., 1998, Consumer Behavior and Marketing Action, 6th, Cincinatti, Ohio: South Western College Publishing.
Barone, M. J., Miniard, P. W., and Romeo, J. B., 2000, “The Influence of Positive Mood on 44 Brand Extension Evaluations,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 26, No. 4, 386-400.
Batra, R., Lenk, P., and Wedel, M., 2010, “Brand Extension Strategy Planning: Empirical Estimation of Brand-Category Personality Fit and Atypicality,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 47, No. 2, 335-347.
Belk, R. W., 1988, “Possessions and the Extended Self,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 15, No. 2, 139-168.
Bhat, S. and Reddy, S. K., 1997, “Investigating the Dimensions of Fit between a Brand and Its Extension” in Leclerc, D. T. and Hartline, M. (eds.), Proceedings of the American Marketing Association Winter Educators' Conference, Chicago: American Marketing Association, 186-194.
Bhat, S. and Reddy, S. K., 2001, “The Impact of Parent Brand Attribute Associations and Affect on Brand Extension Evaluation,” Journal of Business Research, Vol. 53, No. 3, 111-122.
Bhattacherjee, A. and Sanford, C., 2006, “Influence Processes for Information Technology Acceptance: An Elaboration Likelihood Model,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 30, No. 4, 805-825.
Blackston, M., 1992, “A Brand with an Attitude: A Suitable Case for Treatment,” Journal of the Market Research Society, Vol. 34, 231-241.
Blackston, M., 2000, “Observations: Building Brand Equity by Managing the Brand’s Relationships,” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 40, No. 6, 101-105.
Boldero, J. and Francis, J., 2002, “Goals, Standards, and the Self: Reference Values serving Different Functions,” Personality and Social Psychology Review, Vol. 6, No. 3, 232-241.
Bowlby, J., 1973, Attachment and Loss: Vol. 2. Separation, 1st, New York: Basic Books.
Bridges, S., Keller, K. L., and Sood, S., 2000, “Communication Strategies for Brand Extensions: Enhancing Perceived Fit by Establishing Explanatory Links,” Journal of Advertising, Vol. 29, No. 4, 1-11.
Brodie, R. J., Ilic, A., Juric, B., and Hollebeek, L., 2013, “Consumer Engagement in a Virtual Brand Community: An Exploratory Analysis,” Journal of Business Research, Vol. 66, No.1, 105-114.
Buil, I., de Chernatony, L., and Hem, L. E., 2009, “Brand Extension Strategies: Perceived Fit, Brand Type, and Culture Influences,” European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 43, No. 11/12, 1300-1324.
Burke, P. J. and Stets, J. E., 1999, “Trust and Commitment in an Identity Verification Context,” Conference on Theory and Research on Group Processes, Toronto, August.
Chatman, J. A., 1989, “Improving Interactional Organizational Research: A Model of Person-organization Fit,” Academy of Management Review, Vol. 14, No. 3, 333-349.
Chin, W. W., 1998, “The Partial Least Squares Approach to Structural Equation Modeling,” In Marcoulides, G. A. (Ed.), Modern Methods for Business Research, London: Psychology Press.
Cohen, J., 1988, Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, 2nd, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Cristau, C., 2001, Definition, Measurement and Modeling of Attachment to a Brand as the Conjunction of two Separate and Concurrent Dimensions: Dependence and Friendship to the Brand, unpublished doctoral thesis, Aix-Marseille University.
Czellar, S., 2003, “Consumer Attitude toward Brand Extensions: An Integrative Model and Research Proposition,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 20, No. 1, 97-115.
Dwivedi, A. and Merrilees, B., 2013, “Brand Extension Feedback Effects: Towards a Mediated Framework,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 30, No. 5, 450-461.
Ericksen M. K. and Sirgy J. M., 1992, “Employed Females' Clothing Preference, Self-Image Congruence, and Career Anchorage,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 22, No. 5, 408-422.
Fedorikhin, A., Park, C. W., and Thomson, M., 2008, “Beyond Fit and Attitude: The Effect of Emotional Attachment on Consumer Responses to Brand Extensions,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 18, No. 4, 281-291.
Fornell, C. and Larcker, D. F., 1981, “Evaluating Structural Equation Models with Unobservable Variables and Measurement Error,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 18, No. 1, 39-50.
Fournier, S., 1998, “Consumers and Their Brands: Developing Relationship Theory in Consumer Research,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 24, No. 4, 343-353.
Gardner, B. B. and Levy, S. J., 1955, “The Product and the Brand,” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 33, No. 2, 33-39.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., and Anderson, R. E., 2010, Multivariate Data Analysis, 7th, Upper Saddle: Prentice-Hall.
Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., and Sarstedt, M., 2011, “PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet,” Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, Vol. 19, No. 2, 139-152.
Han, H. and Back, K.-J., 2008, “Relationships among Image Congruence, Consumption Emotions, and Customer Loyalty in the Lodging Industry,” Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, Vol. 32, No. 4, 467-490.
He, H. and Li, Y., 2010, “Consumer Evaluation of Technology-Based Vertical Brand Extension,” European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 44, No. 9/10, 1366-1383.
Hogg, M. K., Cox, A. J., and Keeling, K., 2000, “The Impact of Self-monitoring on Image Congruence and Product/ Brand Evaluation,” European Journal of Marketing, Vol. 34, No. 5/6, 641-667.
Huber, F., Vollhardt, K., Matthes, I., and Vogel, J., 2010, “Brand Misconduct: Consequences on Consumer-Brand Relationships,” Journal of Business Research, Vol. 63, No. 11, 1113-1120.
Hung, K. and Petrick, J. F., 2011, “The Role of Self- and Functional Congruity in Cruising Intentions,” Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 50, No. 1, 100-112.
Jahn, S., Gaus, H., and Kiessling, T., 2012, “Trust, Commitment, and Older Women: Exploring Brand Attachment Differences in the Elderly Segment,” Psychology and Marketing, Vol. 29, No. 6, 445-457.
Jamal, A. and Goode, M. M. H., 2001, “Consumers and Brands: A Study of the Impact of Self-Image Congruence on Brand Preference and Satisfaction,” Marketing Intelligence & Planning, Vol. 19, No. 7, 482-492.
Kang, J., Tang, L., Lee, J. Y., and Bosselman, R. H., 2012, “Understanding Customer Behavior in Name-Brand Korean Coffee Shops: The Role of Self-Congruity and Functional Congruity,” International Journal of Hospitality Management, Vol. 31, No. 3, 809-818.
Keil, M., Tan, B. C., Wei, K. K., Saarinen, T., Tuunainen, V., and Wassenaar, A., 2000, “A Cross-Cultural Study on Escalation of Commitment Behavior in Software Projects,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 24, No. 2, 299-325.
Keller, K. L. and Aaker, D. A., 1992, “The Effects of Sequential Introduction of Brand Extensions,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 29, No. 1, 35-50.
Keller, K. L. and Lehmann, D. R., 2006, “Brands and Branding: Research Findings and Future Priorities,” Marketing Science, Vol. 25, No. 6, 740-759.
Kervyn, N., Fiske, S. T., and Malone, C., 2012, “Brands as Intentional Agents Framework: How Perceived Intentions and Ability Can Map Brand Perception,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 22, No. 2, 166-176.
Kleine III, R. E., Kleine, S. S., and Kernan, J. B., 1993, “Mundane Consumption and the Self: A Social Identity Perspective,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 2, No. 3, 209-235.
Klink, R. R. and Smith, D. C., 2001, “Threats to the External Validity of Brand Extension Research,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 38, No. 3, 326-335.
Kotler P., 1991, Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation and Control, 7th, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.
Kressmann, F., Sirgy, M. J., Herrmann, A., Huber, F., Huber, S., and Lee, D. J., 2006, “Direct and Indirect Effects of Self-Image Congruence on Brand Loyalty,” Journal of Business Research, Vol. 59, No. 9, 955-964.
Kumar, A. and Kim, Y. K., 2014, “The Store-as-a-brand Strategy: The Effect of Store Environment on Customer Responses,” Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, Vol. 21, No. 5, 685-695.
Lane, V., 2000, “The Impact of Ad Repetition and Ad Content on Consumer Perceptions of Incongruent Extensions,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 64, No. 2, 80-91.
Levy, S. J., 1959, “Symbols for Sale,” Harvard Business Review, Vol. 37, No. 4, 117-124.
Liang, H., Saraf, N., Hu, Q., and Xue, Y., 2007, “Assimilation of Enterprise Systems: The Effect of Institutional Pressures and the Mediating Role of Top Management,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 31, No. 1, 59-87.
Loudon, D. and Bitta, A., 1993, Consumer Behavior: Concepts and Applications, 4th, NY: McGraw-Hill.
Malar, L., Kromer, H., Hoyer, W. D., and Nyffenegger, B., 2011, “Emotional Brand Attachment and Brand Personality: The Relative Importance of the Actual and the Ideal Self,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 7, 35-52.
Malhotra, N. K., 1988, “Self Concept and Product Choice: An Integrated Perspective.” Journal of Economic Psychology, Vol. 9, No. 1, 1-28.
Markus, H. and Sentis, K., 1982, “The Self in Social Information Processing” In Suls, J. (eds.), Social Psychological Perspectives On The Self, Hillsdale, New Jersey: Erlbaum, 41-70.
Martinez, E. and de Chernatony, L., 2004, “The Effect of Brand Extension Strategies upon Brand Image,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, Vol. 21, No. 1, 39-50.
Michel, G. and Donthu, N., 2014, “Why Negative Brand Extension Evaluations Do Not Always Negatively Affect The Brand: The Role Of Central and Peripheral Brand Associations,” Journal of Business Research, Vol. 67, No. 12, 2611-2619.
Mikulincer, M. and Shaver, P. R., 2007, Attachment in Adulthood: Structure, Dynamics and Change, 1st, NY: The Guilford Press.
Mohammadian, M. and Rahimipour, N., 2012, “Influential Factors in Customer’s Brand Image of the Sponsor,” International Business and Management, Vol. 5, No. 1, 43-51.
Monga, A. B. and John, D. R., 2010, “What Makes Brands Elastic? The Influence of Brand Concept and Styles of Thinking on Brand Extension Evaluation,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 74, No. 3, 80-92.
Morgan, R. M. and Hunt, S. D., 1994, “The Commitment-Trust Theory of Relationship Marketing,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 58, No. 3, 20-38.
Mugge, R., Schifferstein, H. N. J., and Schoormans, J. P. L., 2004, “Personalizing Product Appearance: The Effect on Product Attachment” in: Kurtgözü A. (eds.), Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Design and Emotion, Ankara, 1-15.
Muthukrishnan, A. V. and Weitz, B. A., 1991, “Role of Product Knowledge in Evaluation of Brand Extensions” in Holman, R. H. and Provo, M. R. S. (eds.), Advances in Consumer Research, UT: Association for Consumer Research, Vol. 18, 407-413.
Park, C. W., Eisingerich, A. B., and Park, J. W., 2013, “Attachment – Aversion (AA) Model of Customer-brand Relationships,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 23, No. 2, 229-248.
Park, C. W., MacInnis, D. J., and Priester, J., 2006, “Beyond Attitudes: Attachment and Consumer Behavior,” Seoul National Journal, Vol. 12, No. 2, 3-36.
Park, C. W., MacInnis, D. J., and Priester J., 2007, “Brand Attachment and Management of A Strategic Exemplar” in Schmitt, B. H. (eds.), Handbook of Brand Experience Management, MA: Elgar Publishing, 1-36.
Park, C. W., Maclnnis, D. J., Priester, J. R., Eisingerich, A. B., and Iacobucci, D., 2010, “Brand Attachment and Brand Attitude Strength: Conceptual and Empirical Differentiation of Two Critical Brand Equity Drivers,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 74, No. 6, 1-17.
Park, J. W. and Kim, K. H., 2001, “Role of Consumer Relationships with A Brand in Brand Extensions: Some Exploratory Findings,” Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 28, No. 1, 179-185.
Parker, B. T., 2005, This Brand’s for Me: Brand Personality and User Imagery Based Self-Congruence, Doctoral dissertation, University of Florida.
Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., and Podsakoff, N. P., 2003, “Common Method Biases in Behavioral Research: A Critical Review of the Literature and Recommended,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 88, No. 5, 879-903.
Ringle, C. M., Wende, S., and Will, A., 2005, “Smartpls 3,” http://www.smartpls.de, accessed on November 18, 2015.
Schultz S. S., Kleine, R. E. Ⅲ, and Kernan, J. B., 1989, “These Are A Few of My Favorite Things-Toward An Explication of Attachment as A Consumer Behavior Construct,” Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 16, No. 1, 359-366.
Shen, F., 2014, “Perceived Fit and Deal Framing: The Moderating Effect of Perceived Fit on Sales Promotions in Line and Brand Extensions,” Journal of Product & Brand Management, Vol. 23, Vol. 4/5, 295-303.
Simonin, B. L. and Ruth, J. A., 1998, “Is a Company Known by the Company It Keeps? Assessing the Spillover Effect of Brand Alliance on Consumer Brand Attitudes,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 35, 30-42.
Sirgy, M. J. and Su, C., 2000, “Destination Image, Self-congruity, and Travel Behavior: Toward an Integrative Model,” Journal of Travel Research, Vol. 38, No. 4, 340-352.
Sirgy, M. J., 1982, “Self Concept in Consumer Behavior: A Critical Review,” Journal of Consumer Research, Vol. 9, No. 3, 287-300.
Sirgy, M. J., 1985, “Using Self-Congruity and Ideal Congruity to Predict Purchase Motivation,” Journal of Business Research, Vol. 13, No. 3, 195-206.
Sirgy, M. J., 1986, Self-Congruity: Toward A New Theory of Personality and Cybernetics, 1st, NY: Praeger Publishers.
Sirgy, M. J., Grewal, D., Mangleburg, T. F., Park, J., Chon, K., Claiborne, C. B., Johar, J. S., and Berkman, H., 1997, “Assessing the Predictive Validity of Two Methods of Measuring Self-Image Congruence,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, Vol. 25, No. 3, 229-241.
Sirgy, M. J., Johar, J. S., Samli, A. C., and Claiborne, C. B. 1991, “Self-Congruity versus Functional Congruity: Predictors of Consumer Behavior,” Journal of Academic Marketing Science, Vol. 19, No. 4, 363-375.
Smith, D. C. 1992, “Brand Extension and Advertising Efficiency: What Can and Cannot Be Expected,” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. November, 11-20.
Smith, D.C. and Park, W. C., 1992, “The Effects of Brand Extensions on Market Share and Advertising Efficiency,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 29, No. 3, 296-313.
Sunde, L. and Brodie, R. J., 1993, “Consumer Evaluations of Brand Extensions: Further Empirical Results,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 10, No.1, 47-53.
Tauber, E. M., 1981, “Brand Franchise Extensions: New Products Benefit from Existing Brand Names,” Business Horizons, 36-41.
Tauber, E. M., 1988, “Brand Leverage: Strategy for Growth in A Cost-Control World,” Journal of Advertising Research, Vol. 28, No. 4, 26-30.
Thach, E. C. and Olsen, J., 2006, “The Role of Service Quality in Influencing Brand Attachment: A Winery Visitor Center,” Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, Vol. 7, No. 3, 59-77.
Thomson M., 2006, “Human Brands: Investigating Antecedents to Consumers’ Strong Attachments to Celebrities,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 70, No. 7, 104-119.
Thomson, M., Macinnis, D. J., and Park, W. C., 2005, “The Ties that Bind: Measuring the Strength of Consumers’ Emotional Attachments to Brands,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, Vol. 15, No. 1, 77-91.
Tsang, E. W., 2002, “Acquiring Knowledge by Foreign Partners from International Joint Ventures in a Transition Economy: Learning-by-doing and Learning Myopia,” Strategic management journal, Vol. 23, No. 9, 835-854.
Usakli, A. and Baloglu, S., 2011, “Brand Personality of Tourist Destinations: An Application of Self-Congruity Theory,” Tourism Management, Vol. 32, No. 1, 114-127.
Valette-Florence, P., Guizani, H., and Merunka, D., 2011, “The Impact of Brand Personality and Sales Promotions on Brand Equity,” Journal of Business Research, Vol. 64, No. 1, 24-28.
Völckner, F. and Sattler, H., 2006, “Drivers of Brand Extension Success,” Journal of Marketing, Vol. 70, No. April, 18-34.
Völckner, F. and Sattlet, H., 2007, “Empirical Generalizability of Consumer Evaluations of Brand Extensions,” International Journal of Research in Marketing, Vol. 24, No. 2, 149-162.
Wetzels, M., Odekerken-Schröder, G., and Van Oppen, C., 2009, “Using PLS Path Modeling for Assessing Hierarchical Construct Models: Guidelines and Empirical Illustration,” MIS Quarterly, Vol. 33, No.1, 177-195.
Whang, Y. O., Allen, J., Sahoury, N., and Zhang, H., 2004, “Falling in Love with A Product: The Structure of A Romantic Consumer-Product Relationship,” Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 31, No.1, 320-327.
Yeung, C. W. M. and Wyer, R. S., 2005, “Does Loving A Brand Mean Loving Its Products? The Role of Brand-Elicited Affect in Brand Extension Evaluations,” Journal of Marketing Research, Vol. 42, No. 4, 495-506.
Zhang, J., Pantula, S. G., and Boos, D. D., 1991, “Robust Methods for Testing the Pattern of A Single Covariance Matrix,” Biometrika, Vol. 78, No. 4, 787-795.
Zinkhan, G. M. and Hong, J. W., 1991, “Self-concept and Advertising Effectiveness: A Conceptual Model of Congruency, Conspicuousness, and Response Mode,” Advances in Consumer Research, Vol. 18, No. 1, 348-354.